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Zoology 3100 Lab Practical 1 (Phylum Chlorophyta- Phylum Rotifera)

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Becca Gray

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Zoology 3100 Lab Practical 1 (Phylum Chlorophyta- Phylum Rotifera)

This clade contains 400 spp
posses a modified region of the Golgi apparatus called a parabasal body
hydrogenosomes
unique way of mitosis
found in the gut of termites and roaches (symbiotic relationship)
when termites molt:
they lose Trichonympha and must ingest feces to obtain more to help with break down of wood Background photo by t.shigesa Phylum Nematoda Phylum Chlorophyta Turning Point Phylum Platyhelminthes Success Zoology 3100 Lab Practical 1 Volvox globlator Colonial
Hollow Spheres
Can reach a diameter of 0.5 to 2 mm
contains up to 50,000 embedded in a gelatinous surface
represent transition from single-celled protozoa to metazoan body plan
Cell differentiation
one celled individuals called zooids
each somatic cell contains chloroplast
sexual and asexual reproduction By: Becca Gray Order Vovlocida Daughter Colonies Asexual:
repeated division of cells which form daughter colonies.
They escape by rupturing from mother colony Sexual:
In fall asexual colonies develop sex cells
some cells enlarge to form macrogametes (eggs)
Other cells divide repeatedly to form spindle-shaped microgametes (sperm)
Sperm escapes and fertilizes eggs
Zygote forms Chlamydomonas Unicellular green algae
Biflagellated
Chloroplast
Eye spot (stigma)
Sexual and Asexual reproduction (closed mitosis)
Photoautotrophic https://wiki.umn.edu/IBS8102/030410-Molnar Liv e prep Stigma Flagella Phylum Retortamonada Class Diplomonadea Giardia lamblia http://trialx.com/g/Giardia_Lamblia-4.jpg Parasitic spp
inhabit human digestive system
Often asymptomatic but usually causes diarrhea
Lack mitochondria and Golgi bodies
Feeding stage (trophozoite)
found in untreated or sewage water
Reproduces via binary fission
Enters host as noninfective cyst then undergoes excystation in the intestine Phylum Axostylata Class Parabasalea Trichonympha Class Trichomonada Trichonomas http://skepticwonder.fieldofscience.com/2008/10/sunday-protist-trichonympha.html single celled protozoan
has an axostyle
Disease causing for humans + animals
endosymbionts
Medical & veterinary importance
Sexually transmitted
Mild irritation to severe inflamation Phylum Euglenozoa Subphylum Euglenida Class Euglenoidea Euglena Have chloroplasts with chlorophyll 'b'
Usually inhabits fresh water streams and ponds with vegetation
Spindle shaped
Have a pellicle that is flexible enough to allow bending
autotrophic (holophytic)
Flagellum emerges from resevoir
euglenoid movement (rotates as it swims)
Reproduce via Longitudinal fission http://www.rkm.com.au/euglena/euglena.html Prepared Slide Peranema Flagellum extends forward
has cytosome that opens alongside its flagellar resevoir Live Prep http://eol.org/pages/897916/overview Live Prep Subphylum Kinetoplasta Class Trypanosomatidea Trypanosoma gambiense Blood parasite
pathogenic
Causes African sleeping sickness in humans
Transmitted by tsetse flies
Reproduce via Binary fission
Have a kinetoplast ( first thought to aid in movement, but is rather a distinct region of mitochondria)
Subpellicular ( cortical) microtubules Parasitic
causes Chaga's disease in human's in Central and South America
Transmitted by "kissing bugs" (Triatominae) [usually bites victims on face when they are asleep]
Most common and severe with children 5 years and younger Trypanosoma cruzi http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/TrypanosomiasisAfrican.htm Prepared Slide http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/TrypanosomiasisAmerican.htm "Kissing Bug" Kinetoplast Flagellum Planaria (Dugesia) Class Turbellaria
Order Tricladida
Genus Duglesia
found under stones or submerged leaves or sticks in freshwater environments
9 genera
more than 30 spp
monoecious
reproduce sexually and asexually ( transverse fission)
ciliated epidermis
three germ layers
acoelomates
named after French zoologist/physician Antoine-Louis Duge Bdelloura candida Opisthorchis sinensis Class Trematoda
Subclass Digenea
Order Opisthorchiformis
Liver fluke for humans
parasitic
Monoecious having both male and females reprod. organs (hermaphroditic)
feeds on bile and lacerated cells
destroys the liver
oral sucker at anterior end http://faculty.baruch.cuny.edu/jwahlert/bio1003/platyhelminth.html http://tdr.kku.ac.th/liverflukenetwork/liverflukes.php Fasciola hepatica Sheep liver fluke
parasitic
Class Trematoda
live in bile passages of sheep and rumenants
eggs pass through feces
Miracidium enters in snail to become a sporocyst
2 genera of radaie
Cercaria-encysts on vegetation
becoming ingested the metacercariae encyst in GI tract and grow into flukes (Clonorchis sinesis) http://people.emich.edu/kmcgowa4/newpagefasciola.html Prepared slide Prepared slide (cross section) Gastrodermis Pharynx Pharyngeal Cavity Cilia Testis Pharynx Eyespot Auricle Intestine Oral Sucker Genital Pore Intestinal Caeca Yolk Glands Uterus Testis Ovary Excretory Pore http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/davidb/50249/web/fh201.htm Oral Sucker Pharynx Ventral sucker Yolk duct Testis Caecum Shell gland Ovary Class Cestoda
Order Cyclophyllidea Dipylidium caninum All tapeworms are endoparasitic
Strobila-long body
Composed of units (proglottids) Small dog or cat tapeworm
non ciliated
Scolex with suckers Class Cestoda
Order Cyclophyllidea Taenia pisiformis Dog Tapeworm Class Trematoda Schistosoma mansoni Blood fluke
Go to gut or bladder
Cercariae is killed by immune system http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/olympusmicd/galleries/brightfield/schistosomamansoni.html Class Trematoda Diphyllobothrium latum Prepared slide Cercariae Rediae Eggs http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx/HTML/imageLibrary/A-F/Diphyllobothriasis/body_Diphyllobothriasis_il3.htm Mature Fish tapeworm Scolex Preserved slide Phylum Apicomplexa Class Gregarinea
Order Eugregarinida
Family Gregarinidae Gregarina Found in the gut of cockroaches, Mealworms, and grasshoppers
Adult feeding stage= trophozoites
Life cycle:
start in cockroach/mealworm
2 trophozoites join
Encyst and produce gametes
divide into sporozoites after fertilization
pass through feces
Gets ingested
develop into trophozoite Anterior compartment
(protomerite) Posterior compartment
(deutomerite) Prepared Slide Class Coccidea
Order Euccocidia
Family Plasmodiidae Plasmodium Parasite that causes malaria
Requires 2 hosts
One vertebrate + One Invertebrate
Mosquito bites
Infective sporozoites penetrate liver cells
they undergo schizogony (asexual cleavage multiplication)
Produce merozoites: get releases in blood or infect other liver cells
In red blood cells they become trophozoites (adult stage)
further develops into schizogont; cell ruptures
Symptoms: Recurring fever, vomiting, pain, and delirium http://biology-forums.com/index.php?action=gallery;sa=view;id=784 4 Species:
P. vivax- treatable
P. ovale- minor comparatively
P. malariae- severe but treatable
P. falciparum- highest mortality Do not have flagella
Apical complex to help penetrate through host
infective stage ( present in only certain stage)
Sexual & asexual life cycle stages
Spores (oocysts)
endoparasitic
no mouth- nutrition is osmotrophic (absorbed) Have a hollow tube extending throughout the cell
Axostyle- hollow tube
made of microtubules Rostrum Flagellar bundles Nucleus "Amoeboid" membrane (ingestion) http://www.cdc.gov/std/trichomonas/stdfact-trichomoniasis.htm Phylum Ciliophora Class Heterotrichea Stentor coeruleus Cilia or ciliary organelles in at least one stage of life
Binary fission
Most spp free-living
Many commensal, some parasitic
Pellicle
cytosome-mouth
Multinucleate
Macronucleus- metabolism
micronucleus-reproduction Macronucleus- string of beads
Large ciliate
striped appearance by longitudinal bands of pigmentation
Pigment stentorin causes blue green color Macronucleus http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/stentor-coeruleus-a-protozoan-that-lives-in-high-res-stock-photography/128611797 cytosome contractile vacuole Class Spirotrichea Euplotes http://www.nilesbio.com/prod136.html Have stiff cirri (fused cilia) used for crawling
Macronuclei is long and curved Live Prep Class Litostomatea T. vaginalis T. tenax Live in mouth and on teeth
Likes bacteria in tartar on teeth Didinium Cytosome at tip
Feeds on Paramecium
Oral and body cilia Live prep http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Didinium Balantidium coli symbiotic
Lives in human, pig, rat intestines
not usually pathogenic
Macronucleus
Oral and body cilia
Only ciliate parasitic to humans Macronucleus Prepared slide ( Cyst) http://workforce.calu.edu/Buckelew/Balantidium%20coli%20trophozoites.htm (Trophozoite) Class Oligohymenphorea Paramecium caudatum Asymmetical
Trichocysts- thread like projections
nitocysts-expel trichocysts
multinucleate
binary fission conjugation- increase genetic variation
Autogamy- self fertilization (similar to conjugation, no exchange of nuclei however)
Holozoic- eat bacteria, small organisms and algae Live Prep Vorticella Live Prep Bell shaped
contractile stalk
solitary sessile ciliate
Food is swept into cytopharynx by ciliary action
Reproduces primarily via longitudinal binary fission; but budding also occurs contractile stalk Bell shape Class Phyllopharyngea Ephelota Ephelota attached to Obelia Preserved slide Preserved slide Ephelota Obelia Phylum Dinoflagellida aquatic
many bioluminescent (glow in dark)
2 flagella ( one equatorial and one longitudinal)
mostly found in marine plankton
Naked or covered by cellulose plates (plants have cellulose) Zooxanthellae
dinoflagellates have mutualistic relationship with other organisms such as invertebrates, sea anenomes, protozoa, corals, and clams
Corals can't survive without zooxanthelle Anules-middle groove
Sulcus-longitudinal groove Ceratium Anules Sulcus Live Prep Preserved slide cellulose plates Amebas Holozoic
Pseudopodia primarily used for movement
Lobopodia- large blunt extensions
Limax form-whole body movement
Axopodia (Actinopodia)-long and thin with support of axial rods
Filopodia- (all ectoplasm) long thin extensions
Reticulopodia (Rhizopodia)-net like mesh
Asexual : budding is possible
one nuclei Subgroup Rhizopoda Branched pseudopodia
Lack mitochondria Naegleria fowleri Can become harmful if it grows flagella
warm water, chlorination salt fluctuations can cause flaggella growth
Found everywhere
Highest concentration at SRS
In monkey brain
Causes amebic meningitis
3 forms: amebic, cyst, flagellated Amoeba proteus Found in freswater
Lobopodia and filopodia
Protoplasmic flow
Asexual via Binary fission
Nucleus, contractile vacuoles, and small vesicles are present
most commonly studied Chaos Arcella Body is covered by test (shell), made from siliceious material
Test hat-shaped (hemispherical skeleton)
Asexual via Binary fission
Found in bogs or swamps where much vegetation exists
finger like pseudopodia extend underneath test Difflugia Blunt lobe like pseudopodia (lobopodia)
Feeds on Spirogyra
Freshwater with delicate aquatic vegetation
Inverted flask-shaped skeleton made up of sand grain Entamoeba histolytica Has 2 phases- Trophozoite, and an encysted phase
Live in large intestine
Invade intestinal wall
melt lining with enzymes
Cause amebic dysentery
fatal
cause diarrhea
Endosomes are smaller and off center Entamoeba coli Feeds on organic matter
not harmful unless immune system is compromised
form cysts
Contain several nuclei
endosome is usally centered Subgroup Granuloreticulosans Foraminiferans Ancient group
can be indicators of oil
largest biomass of any animal group
calcium carbonate shell
1/3 of sea bottom
Complex life cycles
multiple fission and an alternation of generations Subgroup Actinopoda Radiolarians Pelagic (live in open water) and shallow water
Spines
Binary Fission
integrate skeleton of calcium carbonate Test- made of silicon dioxide (silica)
Cytoplasm extends axopodia to catch prey Phylum Opalinata Opalina Flattened with no gut
live in rectum of animals, mainly amphibians
Feed on fecal matter by absorption
Covered with cilia
Multi-nuclei (homochariotic-all nuclei are identical)
Asexual via Binary Fission
Sexual via Syngomy Professor: Dr. Reichmuth, Ph.D. Phylum Porifera Considered simplest metazoans
Chief characteristics: pores and canal systems
Feeding cells-Choanocytes
Spicules-organic fibers
Have some form of internal cavity- (spongocoel) Class Calcarea Spicules are made of Calcium carbonate
Canal systems:
Asconoid
syconoid
leuconoid Leucosolenia Asconoid type sponge
simplest organization (Water drawn directly into spongocoel and out osculum)
Grows in a cluster or colony Scypha/Grantia Tends to grow solitary
can be colonial when buds off parent
Syconoid Class Demospongiae Have siliceous spicules, spongin or both
leuconoid canal system
One family freshwater, others are marine
Most sponges belong to this class Spongilla Freshwater Hard Head Sponge Yellow Sponge Grass Sponge Sheep's Wool Sponge Elephant's Ear Sponge/Horny sponge Class Hexactinellida Siliceous spicules
Sponges with 3 dimensional, 6 rayed siliceous spicules
Body often cylindrical or funnel shaped
all marine Euplectella aspergillum "Venus flower basket" Preserved slide Gemmule- (cluster of amoebocytes) http://www.biocyclopedia.com/index/general_zoology/phylum_porifera_sponges.php Phylum Cnidaria Gonium Colonial-usuallly 4 to 16 cells
Each cell like Chlamydomonas
Break apart dead http://www.the-reality.net/The-Rod/ Preserved slide commensal with horeshoe crabs
Marine organisms Both Polyp and Medusa stages
Freshwater and marine
solitary or colonial
hydranths with no mesenteris Two germ layers
gastrovascular cavity
Most radiates have fluid filled hydrostatic skeleton Class Hydrozoa Gonionemus marine form
solitary polyp stage
develops into medusae about 2cm in diameter
Hydroid stage considered to be juvenille stage
produces medusae asexually via budding
Medusae are sexual adults
Velum is characteristic of hydro-medusae, its absent in "true" jelly fish Display specimen http://www.wallawalla.edu/academics/departments/biology/rosario/inverts/Cnidaria/Class-Hydrozoa/Hydromedusae/Gonionemus_vertens.html Exumbrellar surface Gastrovascular cavitiey Manubrium Subumbrella Gonad Velum Tentacular bulb Hydra Preserved slide Bud Preseved slide
(Hydra C.s.) Gastrovascular cavity Gastrodermis Mesoglea Epidermis http://jordanplevin.wordpress.com/2011/11/16/adaptation-for-the-hydra/ Barb Cnidocils
"triggers" Contain cnidocytes that contain stinging organelles - nematocysts
Found in pools, streams, and ponds, usually under leaves of aquatic vegetation
Cnidocils "trigger" nematocyst Obelia Preserved Slide http://www.biocyclopedia.com/index/general_zoology/phylum_cnidaria.php Colonial hydroids
marine- usually attached to seaweeds, rocks, shells, etc.
Medusae make up part of marine plankton
Both poly and medusae stages present
Hydranths--nutritive polyps
Gonangia-reproductive polyps (club shaped) Physalia Portuguese man-of-war
Mother colony (Pneumatophore) holds thousands of colonies of daughter colonies (when there become too many, Mother colony bursts and dies)
Colonial
Gastrozooids-for digestion
Dactylzooids-fishing tentacle http://cherrylisz.wordpress.com/2011/01/04/physalia-the-museum/ Class Scyphozoa Solitary
polyp stage reduced or absent
Bell shaped medusae without velum
gelatinous mesoglea
All marine Stomolophus "Cannonball Jelly" http://www.jaxshells.org/1107ss.htm Aurelia "Moon Jelly"
Order Semaeostomeae
Sexes are separate
sex cells shed from gonads and discharged through mouth http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Moon_Jellies_%28Aurelia_aurita%29_%287153396279%29.jpg Gonads ciliated planula planula settles Sperm
(from another individual) Zygote
(develops on arms of female) Scyphistoma early strobila Strobila Ephyra mouth http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/cnidaria-lecture-test/deck/2812322 Planula Scyphistoma Strobila Ephyra Class Anthozoa All polyps, no medusae
solitary or colonial
divied by at least eight mesenteries or septa with nematocysts
gonads endodermal
all marine Metridium Sea anenome http://www.savalli.us/BIO385/Diversity/03.Cnidaria.html tentacles oral disk pharynx
(lined with cilia) pedal disk gonads gastrovascular cavity mouth septal perforations Astrangia Northern cup coral
only shallow water northern coral
most reef building coral build only in tropical waters
colonies usually arise by budding or division from a single polyp that has been sexually produced
Sclerosepta- radial partitions within the theca Renilla reniformis Sea pansy Leptogorgia Sea whip Gorgonia Sea fan Bilateral
unsegmented
unlined pseudocoel
longitudinal muscles
terrestrial, marine, and freshwater Turbatrix aceti Common name-vinegar eel
Ovoviviparous
(Aguillula aceti) Preserved slide Ancylostoma caninum Preserved slide (male) Preserved slide (female) Female is larger
male has curved anus Trichinella spirallis Parasite in humans, hogs, and rats http://lib.jiangnan.edu.cn/asm/243-introduce.htm encysted juvenile fibrous sheath Ascaris Female Male Uterus filled with fertilized eggs in shells Oviduct ovary longitudinal muscles Vas deferans Class Rhabditea
cmmon intestinal parasite in humans
one-quarter of human population is infected worlwide
females tend to be larger
males have curved posterior and two chitinous spicules from anall regions projecting out Enterobius vermicularis Pinworms
Most common nematode parasite in humans
Live in large intestines
Unlike hookworms they are often found at high socioeconomic levels Preserved slide Dirofilaria Heartworms Phylum Rotifera Philodina Preserved slide anterior disks-corona
foot contains pedal gland to secrete a cement like substance to attach itself to surfaces
Pharynx (mastax)
"whirling"
cuticle is ringed (annulated)
most live in freshwater pedal galnds Corona mouth Germo- vitellarium Preserved slide Preserved slide engulfs food via phagocytosis
feeds on Paramecium Live Prep Test pseudopodia Live prep http://www.atlas-protozoa.com/gallery.php?SOT_CAP=A_HIST http://www.wadsworth.org/testing/parasitologyD/Ecoli.shtml (Cyst) Preserved slide Preserved slide Preserved Slide Ovary Genital chamber
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