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Photography - Crash Course

Photography Basics

Chad Moore

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Photography - Crash Course

Photography Crash Course Concepts Advanced Rules of Composition Composition Color temperature and white balance Different lighting Stop Angle of view ISO Shutter Focus Aperture The three most important functions The shutter is responsible for
The length of the exposure to the light
Movement of the image
Frozen image
Moving image

Shutter speeds are measured by seconds and fractions of a second such as 1", 1/60, and 1/100th of a second. The 'opening' that lets in light.
The aperture is responsible for:
Amount of light entering the camera
Depth of field.

Measured by F-Stops: f/2, f/4, f/8, f/32, etc. The right focus can make or break your image. You can choose between AF and MF.
AF (auto focus) - the camera does the work for you.
MF (manual focus) - you focus yourself by wheeling the focus ring on the lens. This is a way to measure how sensitive your camera is to light. You should almost always use the lowest ISO you can get away with.
It stands for International Standards Organization

ISO 100 - relatively insensitive film.
ISO 1600 - relative sensitive film.
A stop is a way to express the exposure value. The exposure value (EV) denotes all combinations of a camera's shutter speed and relative aperture that give the same exposure. In photography, angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view. The lens has its own angle of view. This can be:
Wide angle - with the feature of a long depth of field.
Telephoto lens - With the feature of a short depth of field. Floodlight
Back light
Frontal light Composition in photography is far from a science, and as a result all of the "rules" should be taken with a pinch of salt. If they don't work in your scene, ignore them; if you find a great composition that contradicts them, then go ahead and shoot it anyway. But they can often prove to be spot on, and are worth at least considering whenever you are out and about with your camera. This is only relevant for digital cameras. White balance allows a remapping of color values to simulate variations in ambient color temperature.
Etc. -2..-1..0..1..2 What effect does the shutter have on pictures? relative short shutter -----> relative long shutter Shutter open for more than 5 seconds This effect can be achieved with a long shutter and the camera on a tripod. This is a shutter of minutes/hours. This effect can be achieved when you have a long shutter + a flash + moving the camera. Short shutter. With a wide aperture (for example f/1.8) you get a 'short depth of field', (or a shallow focus) making only objects in a short range of distance in focus. In order to make an object sharp you should focus on that particular object. Here you also see a short depth of field, with the focus on the leaf. Here you also see a short depth of field, with the focus on the second hat. Here you see a long depth of field, every 'object' (the mountains) is sharp. To attain a long depth of field a small opening is needed, thus for example f/20. In this picture some objects are not sharp. This is not attained by a short depth of field, but by a longer shutter, making the moving objects blurry. What effect has ISO on pictures? A more light sensitive film (ISO 1600 for example) has a 'granular' effect. The first picture is less light sensitive (less granular) and the second picture is more light sensitive. This picture has an ISO of 6400. Pictures with a relatively high light sensitivity (and thus a more granular picture) gives a 'raw' effect. What effect has angle of field on pictures. With a wide angle the image gets distorted. On the foreground the object gets relatively large and the object on the background gets relatively small. This is also shot with a wide angle. You see that the image gets distorted. You can see the difference between a 28mm (wide angle lens, 50mm (normal) and the 100mm, 200mm lenses (telephoto) A zoom lens is one that can change focal lengths. A prime lens has one focal length. For example a 28mm is a prime wide angle lens. A 100-200mm is a telephoto zoom lens. Lenses are a great benefit to a Digital SLR camera. You have the ability to change them on the fly. Imagine that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2 horizontal lines. The rule of thirds says that you should position the most important elements in your scene along these lines, or at the points where they intersect.

Doing so will add balance and interest to your photo. Some cameras even offer an option to superimpose a rule of thirds grid over the LCD screen, making it even easier to use. Rule of Thirds Balancing Elements Leading Lines Symmetry and Patterns Viewpoint Background Depth Framing Cropping Expirementation Placing your main subject off-centre, as with the rule of thirds, creates a more interesting photo, but it can leave a void in the scene which can make it feel empty. You should balance the "weight" of your subject by including another object of lesser importance to fill the space. When we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. By thinking about how you place lines in your composition, you can affect the way we view the image, pulling us into the picture, towards the subject, or on a journey "through" the scene. There are many different types of line - straight, diagonal, curvy, zigzag, radial etc - and each can be used to enhance our photo's composition. We are surrounded by symmetry and patterns, both natural and man-made., They can make for very eye-catching compositions, particularly in situations where they are not expected. Another great way to use them is to break the symmetry or pattern in some way, introducing tension and a focal point to the scene. Before photographing your subject, take time to think about where you will shoot it from. Our viewpoint has a massive impact on the composition of our photo, and as a result it can greatly affect the message that the shot conveys. Rather than just shooting from eye level, consider photographing from high above, down at ground level, from the side, from the back, from a long way away, from very close up, and so on. How many times have you taken what you thought would be a great shot, only to find that the final image lacks impact because the subject blends into a busy background? The human eye is excellent at distinguishing between different elements in a scene, whereas a camera has a tendency to flatten the foreground and background, and this can often ruin an otherwise great photo. Thankfully this problem is usually easy to overcome at the time of shooting - look around for a plain and unobtrusive background and compose your shot so that it doesn't distract or detract from the subject. Because photography is a two-dimensional medium, we have to choose our composition carefully to conveys the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene. You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground, middle ground and background. Another useful composition technique is overlapping, where you deliberately partially obscure one object with another. The human eye naturally recognises these layers and mentally separates them out, creating an image with more depth. The world is full of objects which make perfect natural frames, such as trees, archways and holes. By placing these around the edge of the composition you help to isolate the main subject from the outside world. The result is a more focused image which draws your eye naturally to the main point of interest.

Often a photo will lack impact because the main subject is so small it becomes lost among the clutter of its surroundings. By cropping tight around the subject you eliminate the background "noise", ensuring the subject gets the viewer's undivided attention. With the dawn of the digital age in photography we no longer have to worry about film processing costs or running out of shots. As a result, experimenting with our photos' composition has become a real possibility; we can fire off tons of shots and delete the unwanted ones later at absolutely no extra cost. Take advantage of this fact and experiment with your composition - you never know whether an idea will work until you try it.
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