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SPANISH COMMANDS

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by

Nora Wilson

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of SPANISH COMMANDS

Spanish Commands In Spanish II, you learned that commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. You learned to conjugate a verb in the Present tense for "usted" (the formal "you"), but you're really applying it to "tú" (the informal "you").

Compra (tú) el anillo.
(You) Buy the ring.

Escribe (tú) la tarea.
(You) Do the homework. Remember that Spanish has both a formal and an informal style of speech (tú/Ud.). This distinction applies to commands.

Compre Ud. el anillo.
Buy the ring. (formal)

Compra (tú) los dulces.
Buy the candy. (familiar)

Remember, formal speech is generally used to be polite or to express respect. Informal, or familiar, speech is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. So remember! ... the "tú" commands use the "usted" form, not the tú form!

Following are more examples of commands use three regular verbs: hablar, comer, and escribir.

Habla (tú) más lentamente.
(You) Speak more slowly.

Come (tú) la cena.
(You) Eat the dinner.

Escribe (tú) la carta.
(You) Write the letter. Let's see what happens when you command someone NOT to do something....

No cuentes tus beneficios.
Don't count your blessings.

The verb contar has a stem change in the present tense, where the -o changes to -ue in all forms except for "nosotros" and "vosotros". So ordinarily, you would say, "tú cuentas" (you count). But when making a "tú command" negative, you have to change the vowel of the ending so that the A in an -AR verb changes to E and the E or the I of -ER and -IR verbs change to A.

No hables más lentamente.
Don't speak more slowly. Compare the affirmative informal (tú) commands with the negative informal (tú) commands:

Verb CONTAR
Affirmative: Cuenta tus beneficios.
Count your blessings.
Negative: No cuentes tus beneficios.
Don't count your blessings.

Verb COMER
Affirmative: Come rápidamente.
Speak more slowly.
Negative: No comas rápidamente.
Don't speak more slowly. Irregular Commands ("tú")

Remember also, that in Spanish II you learned eight irregular "tú commands"...

decir - di
salir - sal
hacer - haz
ser - sé
ir - ve
tener - ten
poner - pon
venir - ven Using Object Pronouns with Commands
Notes:

With all affirmative commands, the object pronouns are attached directly to the end of the imperative form of the verb.

Compre Ud. el anillo.
Buy the ring.

Cómprelo Ud.
Buy it.

Traiga Ud. las cartas.
Bring the letters.

Tráigalas Ud.
Bring them.

REMEMBER! When you write a negative command using pronouns, the pronouns are NEVER attached.
Example:
Compre (Ud.) el anillo becomes "Cómprelo" in the affirmative command and "No lo compre" in the negative command! http://www.studyspanish.com/practice/commrev1.htm http://www.studyspanish.com/practice/commrev1.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MI7ij3v6S88 http://www.languagebyvideo.com/video.php?videoId=829 Now let's see what happens to these irregular verbs... You will recall that six of these are "yo-go" verbs. In other words, the yo form of the Present tense has a "go" in it! Yo pongo, yo digo, etc. We will use this form to create the stem of the negative tú commands for these irregular verbs. You will then attach the same endings as you did for the affirmative command as follows:

Decir (to say): di (+) no digas (-)
salir (to go out): sal (+) no salgas (-)
Venir (to come): ven (+) no vengas (-)
Poner (to put): pon (+) no pongas (-)
Hacer (to do): haz (+) no hagas (-)
Tener (to have): ten (-) no tengas (-)
Ser (to be): sé (+) no seas (-)
Ir (to go): ve (+) no vayas (-)

You have to memorize this. There is no other way around it! Fortunately, there are few verbs like these! The following endings need to be memorized for Affirmative and Negative Usted and Ustedes Commands:

Infinitive Ending Usted Affirmative/Negative Endings Ustedes Affirmative/Negative Endings

– AR –e –en
Example: hablar Ud. hable Ustedes hablen
no hable no hablen

– ER –a –an
Example: comer Ud. coma Ustedes coman
no coma no coman

- IR –a –an
Example: escribir usted escriba Ustedes escriban
no escriba no escriban Practica un poco ahora...
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