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Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
Transcript of Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching
History of Language Teaching
The evolution of language teaching reflects the kind of proficiency learners need
Oral proficiency vs. reading proficiency
The Grammar-Translation Method
Early 19th Century
Detailed analysis of
sentences and texts into and out of target language
Reading & writing major focus
Child Language Learning
Introduction of demand for
Using way children learn native language as a model for how students can learn second language
Importance of meaning,
, situational cues
The Reform Movement
Discipline of linguistics
Establishment of phonetics (IPA)
Advocated: study of spoken language, good pronunciation, use of
approach to grammar
Hear language first, words presented in sentences with meaningful contexts, translation avoided
The Direct Method
Without translation or use of learner's native language
Use language actively in the class
Encourage direct use of language
of grammar rules
New teaching points introduced orally
Direct Method Approaches
• Never translate: demonstrate
• Never explain: act
• Never make a speech: ask questions
• Never imitate mistakes: correct
• Never speak with single words: use sentences
• Never speak too much: make students speak much
• Never use the book: use your lesson plan
• Never jump around: use your lesson plan
• Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student
• Never speak too slowly: speak normally
• Never speak too quickly: speak naturally
• Never speak too loudly: speak naturally
• Never be impatient: take it easy
What are goals of language teaching?
Should language teach conversational proficiency, reading, translation or other skills?
What is the role of the native language?
What teaching techniques work best?
What activities work best?
Under what circumstances?
Influences on Language Teaching Innovations
Theory of Language
Language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning
Language is the vehicle for the expression of functional meaning
Language is the vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals
~ 60% of the world is multilingual
The Oral Approach
Language teaching begins with
is the language of the classroom.
New language points are introduced & practiced
Simple forms of grammar taught before complex ones.
Reading & writing introduced after sufficient lexical and grammatical basis established.
Three Processes of Learning Language
Receiving the knowledge or materials
Using it an actual practice until it becomes a personal skill
Fixing knowledge or materials in the memory by repetition
Situational Language Teaching
The use of concrete objects, pictures, "realia"
Together, with actions and gestures, can be used to demonstrate the meanings of new language items
Set up the "situation" in which the target structure is created and model the new situation to students
Conductor of the orchestra
-> Draw the music out to the performers
The Skillful Manipulator
Use questions, commands and other cues to elicit correct use of language
Activities in the Classroom
students repeat after teacher
Isolate sounds, words, groups
teacher uses mime, prompt words, gestures, etc.
using cue words
one student asks a question and another answers
Teacher indicates by shaking head
by repeating the error
tries not to simply correct error for student
invites student to correct it
encourages students to listen to each other carefully
Total Physical Response
Built around the coordination of speech and action
Teaching language through
The verb in the
Absence of stress
Performing physical actions in the target language makes input comprehensible
Needs to be used in
with other techniques
Children develop listening competence before they develop the ability to speak
Listening before speaking
Comprehension via physical responses
Children's ability in listening comprehension is acquired because children are required to respond physically to parent's spoken commands
Listening comprehension leads to speech
After a foundation in listening comprehension is established, speech evolves naturally and effortlessly.
Three Central Processes
Individual students move with commands
Pablo, drive the car around Miako and honk the horn
Jeff, throw the red flower to Maria
Rita, pick up the spoon and put it in the cup
Eduardo, take a drink of water and give the cup to Elaine
Lesson plan should be detailed
Exact utterances should be wrote out
Action is fast-moving
2) Introduce new commands
New verbs introduced with context, using motion
Look for a towel/the book
Hold the cup/the door
Cooperative Language Learning
(1) Students in pairs; one is interviewer, other interviewee
(2) Students reverse roles
(3) Each shares with team members what was learned
One piece of paper and one pen per team
(1) Student 1 makes contribution
(2) passes paper & pen to student to left
(3) Each student makes contribution in turn
(1) Teacher poses question
(2) Students think of response
(3) Students discuss their responses with a partner
(4) Students share their partner's response with the class
(1)Teacher poses problem
(2) Students work out solution individually
(3) Student explains how to solve the problem
of information between learners in groups
Learner held accountable for his/her own learning and is motivated to increase learning of others
relationships among students
Replace competitive structure with team-based structure
Promotes communicative interaction
of all students
Three Types Learning Groups
Established for specific tasks
Ad-hoc groups; short term
Heterogeneous groups; long term
Cooperative Base Groups
What are the three best qualities of a language teacher?
Write down your answers
Share with person next to you
Decide on two best qualities (one from each partner's list) and share with class
regular occurrence of words together
e.g. make my bed, do my hair, etc.
'clean and tidy'
'cool, calm, collected'
'as old as the hills'
 Teaching individual collocations
 Making students aware of collocation
 Extending what students know
 Storing collocations
Lexis as the building blocks of language learning
Language production: piecing together of already-made units
Study ways lexis can be pieced together, the ways they vary, the situations in which they occur
Learner as a
Words or combinations of words
Task-Based Language Teaching
as the core unit of instruction
rather than product
Real world tasks:
those that learners may need to achieve in real life
those that have pedagogical purpose
learners combine different pieces of information to form a whole
learners share & collaborate information
learners arrive at solution together for a problem with a set of information
must choose outcome to a problem through negotiation and discussion
exchange ideas via discussion
Whole language approach
Incorporation of student needs, interests, media
Expect some of the methods discussed here to continue
Refining or reshaping of existing approaches and methods
Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T.S. (2003) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press
Write the following verbs in the past tense
go, is, do, have, work, study, buy, make, pick
Think of four things you did yesterday & write in sentences.
First, I got up and ____________________________
Write three hobbies/activities you like to do
Ask the people around you what their hobbies are
Decide on a suitable gift for each person
Share the gift you chose for one person with the class