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chemistry and bio chemistry sec 3

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mahmoud maher

on 24 October 2015

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Transcript of chemistry and bio chemistry sec 3

chemistry and bio chemistry
sec 3

pancreatic enzymes
where is the pancreas?
The pancreas is an organ, about six inches long,shaped like a flat pear located in the abdomen surrounded by the stomach, small intestine, liver, spleen and gallbladder.Itplays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells
Functions
The pancreas has two main functions,an exocrine function and an endocrine function
Exocrine Function

Exocrine cells of the pancreas produce enzymes that help with digestion fats, carbohydrates and proteins . When food enters the stomach, exocrine cells release the pancreatic enzymes into a system of small ducts that lead to the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct runs the length of the pancreas and carries pancreatic enzymes and other secretions, collectively called pancreatic juice and connects with the common bile duct in the head of pancreas , and together they connect with the duodenum at a point called the ampulla of vater.
Endocrine Function
The endocrine component of the pancreas consists of islet cells (islets of Langerhans) that create and release important hormones directly into the bloodstream. Two of the main pancreatic hormones are insulin, and glucagon

Insulin
is very important in the body because it helps to keep the level of sugar in the blood at a stable level. This means that the body cells get enough food, but not too much. If the level of sugar in the blood is high, the pancreas makes and secretes more insulin. If the level is too low, it secretes less. If you do not make enough insulin, you have diabetes.
Glucagon
is used to raise very low blood sugar.

so it is called mixed gland
proteins
Trypsinogen
Chymotrypsinogen
pro carpoxypeptidase
carbohydrates
carbohydrate
(starch & Glycogen)
Fats
Fats
enterokinase
trypsin
chymotrypsin
carboxypeptidase
active form
inactive form
stomach
pancreas
amylase
sugar
(disacchrides)
oral cavity
stomach
pancreas
pancreatic lipase
fatty acids
pancreas

The pancreas has two functions


(1)protection :
The pancreas secretes sodium bicarbonate used as an antacid to treat acid in digestion .
(2)Digestion :
IT helps in digestion of proteins , carbohydrates , Fats & nuclic acid .
Nuclic acid
pancreas
Enzyme deficiency


-lack of needed fats and fat soluble vitamines .
-Diarrhea & fatty stools
Enzyme deficiency
Dirrhea due to the effects of undigested starch in colon .
Enzyme deficiency
allergies or e formation of toxic substances due to incomplete digestion of protein

increased risk for intestinal infection

PH=7.8-8.7
PH=6.7-7
PH=8
Pancreatic juice
contains a variety of enzymes including (water-mineral salts -trypsinogen -chymotrypsinogen-lipase-amylase-nucleases-carboxypeptidase-elastase-aquas bicarbonate ) work at PH=7-8.6
its secretion regulated by 3 Hormones (cholecystokinin-secretin-Gastric ) which secreted by enteric endocrine system
The islets of Langerhans consist of four distinct cell types, of which three (alpha, beta, and delta cells) produce important hormones; the fourth component (C cells) has no known function.
The most common islet cell, the beta cell, produces insulin, the major hormone in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
The alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce an opposing hormone, glucagon, which releases glucose from the liver and fatty acids from fat tissue.
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