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chemistry and bio chemistry sec 3
Transcript of chemistry and bio chemistry sec 3
where is the pancreas?
The pancreas is an organ, about six inches long,shaped like a flat pear located in the abdomen surrounded by the stomach, small intestine, liver, spleen and gallbladder.Itplays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells
The pancreas has two main functions,an exocrine function and an endocrine function
Exocrine cells of the pancreas produce enzymes that help with digestion fats, carbohydrates and proteins . When food enters the stomach, exocrine cells release the pancreatic enzymes into a system of small ducts that lead to the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic duct runs the length of the pancreas and carries pancreatic enzymes and other secretions, collectively called pancreatic juice and connects with the common bile duct in the head of pancreas , and together they connect with the duodenum at a point called the ampulla of vater.
The endocrine component of the pancreas consists of islet cells (islets of Langerhans) that create and release important hormones directly into the bloodstream. Two of the main pancreatic hormones are insulin, and glucagon
is very important in the body because it helps to keep the level of sugar in the blood at a stable level. This means that the body cells get enough food, but not too much. If the level of sugar in the blood is high, the pancreas makes and secretes more insulin. If the level is too low, it secretes less. If you do not make enough insulin, you have diabetes.
is used to raise very low blood sugar.
so it is called mixed gland
(starch & Glycogen)
The pancreas has two functions
The pancreas secretes sodium bicarbonate used as an antacid to treat acid in digestion .
IT helps in digestion of proteins , carbohydrates , Fats & nuclic acid .
-lack of needed fats and fat soluble vitamines .
-Diarrhea & fatty stools
Dirrhea due to the effects of undigested starch in colon .
allergies or e formation of toxic substances due to incomplete digestion of protein
increased risk for intestinal infection
contains a variety of enzymes including (water-mineral salts -trypsinogen -chymotrypsinogen-lipase-amylase-nucleases-carboxypeptidase-elastase-aquas bicarbonate ) work at PH=7-8.6
its secretion regulated by 3 Hormones (cholecystokinin-secretin-Gastric ) which secreted by enteric endocrine system
The islets of Langerhans consist of four distinct cell types, of which three (alpha, beta, and delta cells) produce important hormones; the fourth component (C cells) has no known function.
The most common islet cell, the beta cell, produces insulin, the major hormone in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
The alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans produce an opposing hormone, glucagon, which releases glucose from the liver and fatty acids from fat tissue.