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Untitled Prezi

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by

Matdy Friedrich

on 23 April 2013

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Solar Energy Cell Project Project Design a.k.a. best TA ever ;) We love Sam
The Problem/Question Discussion and Reflection By: Nico, Rodney, Tareq, and Matdy Solar cells
Background
Device -> light -> electrical energy
Solar cell is sort of a light bulb that’s acting in reverse.

Three generations of solar cells:
1st: Silicon base, solid state. (most effective)
2nd: Thin film solar cells
3rd: Using different materials such as organic dyes besides semiconductors. Mostly done in Laboratory to be tested so this is what we had done. Two Cells were made
TiO2 and Zn(NO3) were used as suspensions
These are good because their outer electrons are easily excited by light
Suspensions then mixed with acetic acid in 1mL increments until spreadable
TiO2 looks like white paint when ready
Zn(NO3) is clear and has a low viscosity
Add 1 drop of detergent to both suspensions
Increases spreadability
Testing of plates for conductivity
Done with multimeter
One side has resistance, other does not Week 1-2: Preparation of Initial Solar Cells Here is what we did This is what we tried to do Three Dye-sensitized solar cells were made over three weeks The general goal, of course, is to improve on the solar cells. Making it more efficient in wider band of solar including infrared. So what we were looking for was which of the two types of our solar cells gave the best results.
We used two different semiconductors and two different dyes:



This is important because solar cells need to be cheaper, lower-in-price and better in quality, making them more efficient so we can get more people to go solar. Reasons for doing the project But How did we do that ?!! 1. A solar energy cell that performs best under UV, fluorescent and incandescent light.

2. A solar energy cell that produces the highest Voltage and lowest resistance. What are we looking for in this project? Zinc nitrate and Titanium dioxide
1,1’-Diethyl-2,2’ -cyanine iodide and 1,1’-Diethyl-2,2’ -dicarbocyanine iodide Two Cells were made
TiO2 and Zn(NO3) were used as suspensions
These are good because their outer electrons are easily excited by light
Suspensions then mixed with acetic acid in 1mL increments until spreadable
TiO2 looks like white paint when ready
Zn(NO3) is clear and has a low viscosity
Add 1 drop of detergent to both suspensions
Increases spreadability
Testing of plates for conductivity
Done with multimeter
One side has resistance, other does not Week 1: Preparation of Initial Solar Cells Preparing the Plates
Place two of four plates conductive side up
Tape ~1mm into the plate on three of the sides, ~4mm in on the final side
This gives room for the alligator clamps later in the experiment
Place two to four drops of the suspensions on separate plates
Spread so that it covers most of the plate
Remove tape
Remove excess suspension using ethanol
Once dry, place slides on hotplate until they darken
This removes the detergent Cover plates with a few drops of 1, 1 biethyel cyanine
Remove excess with ethanol
After dry, cover the non-conducting side of the slides with carbon
A pencil was used in this experiment
Put opposing sides together (carbon to suspension), and put a drop of electrolyte solution between them
Supports flow of electrons
Bind with binder clips and place alligator clips on the 4mm clear sides Week 1-2 Week 2 Carbon Covered Slides Metal Suspensions Testing
1. Check initial voltage and resistance for the cells after they are made
2. Place cells under fluorescent, incandescent, and UV light for 10 minutes
3. After placed under a specific source for 10 minutes, check voltage and resistance
4. Let cells sit for 10 minutes without any specific source of light for 10 minutes before placing under another source
Same procedure was done.
Used Zn(NO3) because it gave the best UV results.
Used a different electrolytic solution because the other kind was not available
Same testing was done with the same result parameters Week 3 Results and Main Claims As suggested by the research into the scientific literature, the 1,1’-Diethyl-2,2’-cyanine iodide solution seemed to absorb the most light in the ultraviolet spectrum, as seen in both the titanium oxide and zinc nitrate tests in week 2.
Similarly, regardless of which light was used the solar cells registered a current that dissipated when not under the light, which was noted in the down time between trails.
Major Trends The data displays that with the initial tests in week 2 the zinc nitrate performed better than the titanium oxide, using the ultraviolet test as the distinctive, determinate factor.
The tweaks done in week three by changing the dye from the 1,1’-Diethyl-2,2’-cyanine iodide solution (pink) to the 1,1’-Diethyl-2,2’-dicarbocyanine iodide solution (turquoise) lowered the millivolt output of the solar cell under the UV light. Thereby, we decided the original design was more effective Discussion and ALL the Good Stuff The results followed what was predicted from the information held in the scientific literature on photovoltaic cells.
Due to the coloration of the dye it also makes sense that the cells would not perform as well under those wavelengths that emit the color that is being reflected by the dye
Outside of a single event in the third week all of the volt readings made sense in respect to when they fluctuated as a function of whether or not they were in the light.
Repetition of readings both with different multimeters and testers shows internal validity Accuracy and Precision The zinc nitrate has a lower formal charge across its ions than those of the titanium oxide and so dissociates in water more readily, increasing the flow of electrons amongst the electrolytic solution.
Otherwise other characteristics may contribute to the observations. For instance, zinc nitrate may be more excited by the UV light and more reactive. Mechanistic Explanations
Trying other metal suspensions to determine the mechanism or the trend that exhibits the phenomena witnessed
Constructing identical solar energy cells to perform more trials under more types of light
Adding a designated amount of Acetic Acid to the metal suspension rather than visually approximating based on consistency
Possible Improvements Design and Assembly Testing with natural light outside at differing times of day to test photovoltaic efficacy
Testing to see if multiple cells of either the same type (or different types) could generate more charge or gather different band gaps of solar radiation. Additional Testing SIGNIFICANCE
These are significant because they display the cells’ ability to absorb specific energetic wavelengths of light and transmit them without merely holding a charge. Solar Energy Cell Voltage in mV Solar Energy Cell Resistance in Ohms The reason why absorption of UV light is the primary factor for this experiment is that it can easily pass through clouds and has a higher energy profile than visible light, meaning it can excite more electrons per the wave of light.
UV light also tends to vary less in respect to atmospheric conditions than do different portions of visible light. Implications and Reasoning
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