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National Georaphic Project

Oceans
by

Harrison Marable

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of National Georaphic Project

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about 106,400,000 square kilometres (41,100,000 sq mi),[1] it covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. The first part of its name refers to Atlas of Greek mythology, making the Atlantic the "Sea of Atlas".

The oldest known mention of "Atlantic" is in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (Hdt. 1.202.4): Atlantis thalassa (Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς θάλασσα; English: Sea of Atlas). The term Ethiopic Ocean, derived from Ethiopia, was applied to the southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century.[2] Before Europeans discovered other oceans, the term "ocean" itself was synonymous with the waters beyond the Strait of Gibraltar that we now know as the Atlantic. The early Greeks believed this ocean to be a gigantic river encircling the world.

The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean (which is sometimes considered[by whom?] a sea of the Atlantic), to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south. (Other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica.) The equator subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean.
I
Introduction to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean Current Event
A powerful Arctic storm has swept through the Northern Atlantic, fresh from the Arctic. It is currently going through Bombogenesis or intensifying in the warmer Gulf Stream waters. This storm is so large that it's blowing clouds to the northeastern U.S., even as it approaches Europe. However, the storm will be weakened to the point that no fatal damage to Europe will be done, although winds will reach the region where Ireland presides.
The Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe; the Strait of Gibraltar (where it connects with the Mediterranean Sea–one of its marginal seas–and, in turn, the Black Sea, both of which also touch upon Asia) and Africa.

In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean. The 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border. Some authorities show it extending south to Antarctica, while others show it bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean.[3]

In the southwest, the Drake Passage connects it to the Pacific Ocean. The man-made Panama Canal links the Atlantic and Pacific. Besides those mentioned, other large bodies of water adjacent to the Atlantic are the Caribbean Sea; the Gulf of Mexico; Hudson Bay; the Arctic Ocean; the Mediterranean Sea; the North Sea; the Baltic Sea and the Celtic Sea.

Covering approximately 22% of Earth's surface, the Atlantic is second in size to the Pacific. With its adjacent seas, it occupies an area of about 106,400,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 sq mi);[1] without them, it has an area of 82,400,000 square kilometers (31,800,000 sq mi). The land that drains into the Atlantic covers four times that of either the Pacific or Indian oceans. The volume of the Atlantic with its adjacent seas is 354,700,000 cubic kilometers (85,100,000 cu mi) and without them 323,600,000 cubic kilometers (77,640,000 cu mi).

The average depth of the Atlantic, with its adjacent seas, is 3,339 meters (1,826 fathoms; 10,950 ft); without them it is 3,926 meters (2,147 fathoms; 12,880 ft). The greatest depth, Milwaukee Deep with 8,380 meters (4,580 fathoms; 27,500 ft), is in the Puerto Rico Trench. The Atlantic's width varies from 1,538 nautical miles (2,848 km; 1,770 mi) between Brazil and Sierra Leon to over 3,450 nautical miles (6,400 km; 4,000 mi) in the south.
Atlantic Ocean Topographical Features
1. Midatlantic Ridge
2. Strait of Gilbratar
Mid-Atlantic Ridge Pictures
Strait of Gilbratar Pictures
The strait was formed by erosion
of the land in between Europe and
Africa, eventually leading to the
ocean flooding the land, creating
the strait.
The strait seperates Europe and Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge was formed by a divergence
of the North American and Eurasian tectonic plates,
causing magma to ooze out of the fissure, creating new sea floor, which supports the theory of continental drift first theorized by Alfred Wegener.
As made evident by the picture,
the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the largest
mountain chain in the world. It stretches
from Iceland to past the southern tips
of South America and Africa. As a
total, the chain reaches over 40,000
kilometers across the ocean, connecting
many ridges with it. It is the largest mid-ocean ridge in the world.
Time for a Submarine to Travel (Atlantic):
1. Jekyll Island Coast to Nearest Peak of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: 2,225 Miles, 1 Day, 19 Hours. Complete Elevation Profile here:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=f5826231-91f2-49a6-8267-fe5d12ef9be7&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-our-oceans-seas/IhEF68j-tEk
Time For A Submarine To Travel:
(There are embedded links, so what you do after clicking is view the file, then right click the file with the Google Earth symbol underneath Temporary Places, and select View Elevation Profile.)
Atlantic Ocean Submarine:
1. Jekyll Coast to Nearest Mid-Atlantic Ridge Peak:
2224 mile
1 Day, 19 Hours
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=f5826231-91f2-49a6-8267-fe5d12ef9be7&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/IhEF68j-tEk
2. Nearest Mid-Atlantic Peak to Strait of Gilbratar:
4,250 miles
3 Days, 8 Hours
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=9ed14439-370d-4148-8069-4e76622e8afc&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/7YYFFXYbWLQ
Nearest Mid-Atlantic Peak to Strait of Gibraltar:
2,376 miles
1 Day and 21 Hours
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=dc958874-110b-470f-831d-07c2279407cd&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/km6e9ccGzFg
Indian Ocean Introduction
The Indian Ocean is the third largest ocean, and accounts for 20% of the total volume of the oceans. It is bordered by Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Southern Ocean. The ocean's area is around 73,556,000 kilometers squared, and a volume of 292,131,000 km.^3.
Indian Ocean Topographical Features:
1. The Sunda Trench
2. Lombok Strait
Sunda Trench Pictures:
Indian Ocean Current Event
The cyclone season is ending in the Indian Ocean, and people are celebrating for its conclusion. The cyclones can kill animal species, disrupt habitats, and hinder trade. This proves how much cyclones can effect society.
The Sunda Trench was formed by a oceanic-continental convergent boundary. The denser oceanic plate subducts, forming a trench.
This map shows many tectonic features, like ridges, on top of the Sunda subduction zone.
Lombok Strait Pictures
The Lombok Strait is between
Bali and Lombok.
Bali and Lombok are east of Java and
south of Indonesia.
Indian Submarine Travel:
Jekyll Island Coast to Sunda Trench:
16,542 Miles
13 Days, 12 Hours
Indian Submarine Travel:
1. Jekyll Island Coast to Java Trench
14,905 Miles; 12 Days, 2 Hours
2. Jekyll Island Coast to Lombok Strait
16,810 Miles;13 Days, 16 Hours
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=a3039b36-2261-4d2a-8135-76e892fe9a68&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/cn-gk5Dg2E8
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=6c0c596b-067d-4453-ba4d-4c2874cbdba8&sizekb=2#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/_9qAPLF8L-E
3. Java Trench to Lombok Strait
413 Miles
8 Hours
Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=44143800-cc5e-45f8-bb9d-616f48939f74&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/yPloS5Pvgko
Artic Ocean Introduction
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the oceanic divisions, also called the Arctic Sea or the Arctic Mediteranean Sea. It is surrounded by the Eurasia and North America. It is also covered in ice most of the year, so not much upwelling happens.
Arctic Ocean Pictures
1. Lomonosov Ridge
2. Svyataya Anna Trough

Lomonosov Ridge Pictures
One of the creating factors
of the Arctic Ocean is the
Lomonosov Ridge.
The Lomonosov Ridge intersects with the North Pole, and was formed by a divergent tectonic plate boundary.
Svyataya Anna Trough Pictures
This shows the water content for the St. Anne's Trough.
This feature was named after
the ship Svyataya Anna,
which was the first ship through the trough, and was formed by land erosion.
Arctic Ocean Current Event
The Arctic sea ice oscillation is on the negative or shrinking phase all winter. This affects the ecosystem by decreasing land space for polar bears and other mammals.
Submarine Travel for Arctic Ocean:
1. Jekyll Island Coast to Lomonosov Ridge
6,275 Miles; 5 Days, 3 Hours

Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=3c47a19b-065f-4111-8b62-a8444aff9a5f&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/FkDKLC4QDFQ
2. Jekyll Coast to St. Anne Trough
6,204 Miles
5 Days

Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=a10c67b6-e1cb-4fb2-a3a9-63e1666eb51b&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/UYyrPgHNmZg
3. Lomonosov Ridge to St. Anne Trough
657 Miles
12 Hours

Elevation Profile Link:http://productforums.google.com/forum/embed/?PostWizardFile=58814d83-b61b-4a6e-92f6-81ed684bf8e1&sizekb=1#!topic/gec-member-centric-locations/SMpvSeJZ1V8
That's All Folks! (Which is quite a lot.)
Bibliography
bing.com
google.com
infoplease.com
Full transcript