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Section 11.1 From Republic to Empire
Transcript of Section 11.1 From Republic to Empire
From Republic to Empire
The End of The Republic
Problems the Roman Republic Had
2. Society was not getting along
3. Little or no political order
5. City of Rome was overcrowded
Calls For Change
Some Romans tried to stop the chaos
Ex: Cicero [philosopher & public speaker]
"Romans should cooperate & work together"
"Limit the powers of the generals! Let's bring back the ways of the Republic"
Cicero Did Not Succeed. Government Did Not Change- Why?
1. Many Romans did not agree with him
2. Others were too busy to listen
3. Some generals were working on taking over the government
The most powerful of these generals was...
Great war general
Brave & skilled in battle
Treated his soldiers well
Powerful friends - Pompey & Crassus [The three of them ruled Rome]
Conquered all of Gaul
- Julius Caesar, Pompey & Crassus = partnership for about 10 years.
- But Caesar was getting popular & his friends were getting jealous.
-50 BC: Pompey's followers ordered Caesar to give up his position in the army. They wanted Pompey to rule alone.
-Result: War between Pompey and Caesar.
-Caesar returned to Rome in 45 BC
-Made himself dictator for life
-People did not like that + they did not like the way Caesar gained power
-Senators [members of Council] were angry. Caesar had reduced their power.
-They feared his growing strength
After Caesar's assassination, two great leaders appeared.
Caesar's former assistant
Caesar's adopted son
They both wanted to punish those who murdered Caesar
Senate had to run away
Antony & Octavian's army defeated some of them. The rest killed themselves
Antony & Octavian
After the Battle of Philippi, Octavian returned to Italy
Antony went East to fight Rome's enemies
Eight years later:
Octavian was insulted.
Result = War.
Antony was defeated. He escaped back to Egypt with Cleopatra.
They both committed suicide so they would not be taken prisoner by Octavian.
Octavian became the only ruler of Rome
Over the next few years, he gained more and more power
He became the first Roman Emperor of the Roman Empire in 27 BC
New title: "Augustus"