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History of Spain - Modern History and Current Events
Transcript of History of Spain - Modern History and Current Events
Birth date: March 5, 1942
Birth place: Sevilla, Andalucía
Terms: Dec. 1, 1982-May 4,1996
Served 4 terms
Expanded public healthcare and education
Joins EEC (European Union)
Transition to democracy
"the best politician in Europe" King Juan Carlos I Married Princess Sofia of Greece on May 14, 1962.
After the honeymoon, they lived in La Zarzuela Palace - just outside Madrid - still their residence today.
Children: la Infanta Elena (born 1963), la Infanta Cristina (1965), Prince Felipe (1968)
In his first message to the nation in the Spanish Parliament, King Juan Carlos I expressed the basic ideas of his reign: to restore democracy and become the king of all Spaniards, without exception. King Juan Carlos I Born: January 5, 1938
Crowned king (el Rey): November 22, 1975 - two days after Franco's death
restoring Spain to a monarchy
he wanted to be known as "King of all Spaniards" Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
(ETA) "Basque Homeland and Freedom" / "Basque Country and Liberty"
Basque Terrorist Organization
In the early days of General Franco’s dictatorship, ETA did enjoy support amongst some parts of the Spanish population given that it was considered as one of the main opposition groups to Franco’s dictatorship.
Responsible for killing almost 1,000 people since its foundation in 1968.
ETA has murdered 839 people: 527 civilians and 301 soldiers.
More than 700 members of ETA are in prisons in Spain, France and other countries.
Want independence from Spain for the Basque region.
Not all Basques want independence, nor do they support terrorist activity. March 11, 2004 Three days before the 2004 general election, 10 bombs killed 191 people in the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings. Elections 3/14/04 Went on with General Elections on March 14th.
Showed the terrorists that Spain would not be scared or defeated.
People's Party lost the election, despite extremely high ratings (before the March 11th attacks). Modern History and Current Events History of Spain Part 4 The Royal Family The Political Reform Referendum
(December 1976) La Constitución Española - Preamble The Spanish Nation, desiring to establish justice, liberty, and security, and to promote the wellbeing of all its members, in the exercise of its sovereignty, proclaims its will to:
Guarantee democratic coexistence within the Constitution and the laws, in accordance with a fair economic and social order.
Consolidate a State of Law which ensures the rule of law as the expression of the popular will.
Protect all Spaniards and peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, of their culture and traditions, languages and institutions.
Promote the progress of culture and of the economy to ensure a dignified quality of life for all.
Establish an advanced democratic society, and Cooperate in the strengthening of peaceful relations and effective cooperation among all the peoples of the earth.
Therefore, the Cortes pass and the Spanish people ratifies the following. King of all Spaniards According to a poll in the newspaper El Mundo in November 2005:
77.5% of Spaniards thought Juan Carlos was "good or very good"
15.4% "not so good"
7.1% "bad or very bad" Felipe González Márquez Under his government:
education was made universal and free until the age of 16
university education was expanded
the social security system was established
partial legislation of abortion became law for the first time (despite opposition from the Roman Catholic Church)
Felipe González Márquez pushed for liberal reforms and a restructuring of the economy. José María Aznar As a teenager, he belonged to the Falange Party - then a socialist party.
He later moved to a Christian Democratic party, which was more central.
Elected Prime Minister as a member of the People's Party (conservatives, although more central) in 1996.
Reelected in 2000. Purpose: to approve Political Reform Act of 1977
Aim was to move away from the dictatorship of the Franco era and turn Spain into a constitutional monarchy with a parliament system based on representative democracy.
First democratic poll since 1939 (passed by over 90% in favor)
Laid groundwork for general elections (June 15, 1977) for which there was over 80% turnout rate.
Political parties needed to be legalized to be recognized. New liberal Constitution
(La Constitución Española) Approved by 88% majority of Spaniards (December 6, 1978)
Made Spain a federal state
As a parliamentary monarchy,the king is the official head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces, but the elected prime minister is the head of the government.
Restored civil liberties and freedom of the press
Abolished torture and death penalty February 23, 1981 Attempted coup d'état (el golpe del Estado)
Cause: tension during the Spanish transition to democracy
problems arising from the economic crisis
difficulties in creating devolved governments for the Spanish regions,
increased violence by the Basque separatist group ETA
reluctance and/or opposition by a significant part of the Spanish Armed Forces to accept the newly-born democratic system, after 37 years of Franco's military government, fueled (in their opinion) by the inability of the democracy to face and handle the aforementioned problems properly.
Leader: Lieutenant-Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina
300 Civil Guards and military interrupted Parliament and staged a coup d'état.
Tanks rolled down streets of Valencia by an army general.
King Juan Carlos appeared on television 6 hours later, commanding rebels to stop - they surrendered 12 hours later.
One million Spaniards demonstrated in Madrid in favor of democracy.
Leaders of all political parties linked arms and marched together. His two terms:
Aznar and Tony Blair (former UK Prime Minister) actively supported President George W. Bush and the U.S. in the War on Terror. ETA ETA declared ceasefires in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2006, but subsequently broke them.
However, on September 5, 2010, ETA declared a new ceasefire that is still being enforced.
On October 20, 2011, ETA announced a "definitive cessation of its armed activity."
Racism throughout the country towards Basques because of the actions of ETA. 3/11/04 (11-M) Monument Inside the glass cyclinder, spontaneous expressions of sorrow from citizens were engraved into a transparent plastic film. Each day at sunrise and sunset, the sunlight illuminates these messages.
It is "a view from within, from a space that creates emotions." Terrorist Attacks Al-Qaeda
The Spanish Government tried to blame ETA to avoid backlash to the People's Party for their support of the U.S. in the War on Terror.
Accusations of hiding information regarding the investigation and conspiracies ran wild. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Prime Minister (2004-2011)
Member of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE).
Controversy and public outcry
Spain's unemployment rate was the highest amongst countries that use the euro.
Spaniards accused him of "sitting on the sidelines until being forced into action" by other governments’ leaders.
Left office in December 2011.
The Deputy Prime Minister assumed office. Movimiento 15-M A series of ongoing demonstrations in Spain whose origin can be traced to social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Democracia Real YA) or Youth Without a Future (Juventud Sin Futuro) among other civilian digital platforms and 200 other small associations.
The protests started on 15 May 2011 with an initial call in 58 Spanish cities.
The series of protests demands a radical change in Spanish politics, as protesters do not consider themselves to be represented by any traditional party nor favored by the measures approved by politicians.
Protesters share a strong rejection of unemployment, welfare cuts, Spanish politicians, the current two-party system in Spain between the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and the People's Party, as well as the current political system, capitalism, banks and bankers, political corruption and firmly support what they call basic rights: home, work, culture, health and education.
According to statistics published by RTVE, the Spanish public broadcasting company, between 6.5 and 8 million Spaniards have participated in these protests. Movimiento 15-M La Plaza de Catlunya,
Barcelona, España Mariano Rajoy Current Prime Minister of Spain
Leader of the Spanish People's Party
Member of the Conservative Popular Party
Partido Popular (PP) back in power
Street protests against first austerity plan
Salaries of public workers were frozen, the workweek in public administration was reduced to 37.5 hours, and recruitment of new public employees has been halted, except in the areas of health, education, and security.
A program that provided rent assistance for young people was ended, and the minimum wage has been frozen—something that has not happened since 1966.
The income tax and tax on real estate was also increased for 2012 and 2013.