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Animation Prezintation

short presintation on animation and the history of animation
by

Alexander Kurt-Baker

on 21 September 2012

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Transcript of Animation Prezintation

By Alex Kurt-Baker THE History of Animation Persistence of vision is a phenomenon of the eye by which an after image is thought to persists for approximately 1/25Th of a second on the retina.


In the early days of film animation it was determined that a frame rate of less than 16 frames per second causes the mind to see flashing images.
This persistence of vision is important to animation because it allows the animator to draw the character in different frames and make it look like the character is moving when its actually not. Persistence of vision The phenakistoscope was an early animation devioce that used persistence of vision to creatve the illusion of motion.
it used a spinning disc attached vertically to a handle, arrayed around the disc's centre was a series of drawings showing different phases of animation & cut through it were a series of equally spaced radial slits, the user would spin the disc & loom through the moving slits at the discs refection in a mirror.

this is significant because this was the first device that allowed you to see moving drawn images with the help of persistence of vision. Phenakistoscope Stop motion (also referred to as stop frame animation) is an animation technique to make physically manipulated objects to move on their own, the object is moved a tiny bit at a time between individually photographed frames creating the illusion of movement.

i have below an example of stop motion animation, which was use by peter Gabriel in the award winning video 'sledgehammer' Stop frame animation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1tTN-b5KHg Frame rate is the frequency at which an imaging device produces unique, consecutive images called 'frames'.
there are 3 main frame rate standards in the T.v/movie making business:
- 24p
- 25p
- 30p
However, there are many variations on these, aswell as new emerging standards.
different frame rates affect how the animation looks, if it is to slow its jumpy and doesn't flow correctly, if it is to fast then the animation is also jumpy and out of time with audio and doesn't sync well, so the frame rate has to be precisely right if the animation is supposed to look right. Frame rate The zoetrope like the phenakitoscope used the principle of persistence of vision to make static drawings move, only this was a bit more sophisticated, in which a strip of still pictures were put on a band inside a cylinder with slits cut equally into the sides and this time it span so that when the person looked through the slits they would see the image move for smoothly.

This is significant because it showed that there was more potential in makinf still images move and the creation of the first animation movie box. Zoeotrope Praxinoscope The praxinoscope was the successor of the zoetrope.
it used a strip of pictures around the inner surface of a spinning cylinder
the zoetrope showed a brighter less distorted picture than the zoetrope
the praxinoscope was significant because it could be used to show aminated secnes to larger audiences e.g. theatres. the zoopraxiscope was an early device for displaying motion pictures.
it is considered the first ever movie projector.
it used rotating glass discs in rapis succession to give the impression of motion.
this is significant because it is seen as the first ever true movie projector and was the first to change from using strips of paper to silouhettes on glass. Zoopraxiscope the kinetoscope was designed to be used by one viewer at a time through a tiny peephole.
It conveyed a strip of moving images at high speed over a source of light eith a high speed shutter.
the kinetoscope was significant because it didnt just have impacty in america but it also had impact in europe aswell Kinetoscope George Meilies role within developing stop motion techniques was the compositon of the shots, he was the first person who really used special effects in his films, stopping the camera to set up a shot and then starting it again to look like a chair had fallen over or he had dissapeared somewhere etc.

Alot of animations/videos and films have been inspired by george meilies:

-around the world in 80 days used 7 mins of 'trip to the moon' at the beginning of the film.

the smashing pumkins video for
'tonight tonight' is heavily influienced
by george meilies work in which the
animation and artwork are quite similar. To make his film, Cohl placed each drawing on an illuminated glass plate and then traced the next drawing-with variations-on top of it until he had some 700 drawings. This simple technique produced consistent movement and continuity between the drawings, and allowed just Cohl and a camera assistant to create the film.
one work that was inspired by emile cohl was a short film by martin lindsey called 'Manfish-morph', it used the same rudimetary drawing style as emile cohl and used frame switches to give the illusion of movement Emile Cohl Ladislaw was the very first oerson to use stop motion puppetry.
he used inscets as his protagonists and used the same style as most stop motion animators use today, taking the insect & moving him a miniscule amout every frame, then taking a shot and moving it again, putting all these frames together showed the insects moving on their own and created the illusion of movement. Ladislaw Starewicz One major work in recent times inspired by stare wicz work was the academy award winning 'fantastic mr fox' which used the same kind of style of puppetry to acheive the look of the animals moving on their own Windsor Mckay Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 American animated short film by Winsor McCay. Although not the first animated film, as is sometimes thought, it was the first cartoon to feature a character with an appealing personality. The appearance of a true character distinguished it from earlier animated "trick films", such as those of Blackton and Cohl, and makes it the predecessor to later popular cartoons such as those by Walt Disney and Max Fleischer. The film was also the first to be created using keyframe animation. Windsor Mckay inspired such work as warner brothers looney tunes and even walt disney, without the likes of 'Gertie the Dinosaur' & 'Little Nemo' we wouldn't have the likes of mickey mouse, or bugs bunny etc. Earl Hurd was an early 1900's artist who took winsor mackays work and expanded on it, he made animation easier to watch by drawing the character at more frames pre second so it ran smoother and more easier, they also started the idea of tracing the images but changing the features of it only ao the animation wasnt differently drawn in the scenes.
the examples of this are things like walt disney and his drawings, he copied the frame rate to make his animations run smoother . Earl Hurd & John Bray One things Walt disney taught was 'the 12 basic principles of animation' these were the principles in which all disney films/animation films went by, this is just one 1 example:

Rule 1: Squash and stretch
The most important principle is "squash and stretch". the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects. It can be applied to simple objects, like a bouncing ball, or more complex constructions, like the musculature of a human face.Taken to an extreme point, a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect.In realistic animation, however, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object's volume does not change when squashed or stretched. If the length of a ball is stretched vertically, its width (in three dimensions, also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally.

Walt Disney One example that still uses squash and stretch are cartoons like 'looney tunes' e.g. wiley cyote, the squash and stretch technique suits this animation very well because it is full of slapstick violence which is sarcastic and over the top which is meant to make the audience laugh when the cyote gets hurt all the time.
the origins of this type of animation have been influenced heavily by winsor mckay & Earl Hurd because of the drawn style and flowing frame rate its similar to 'Bobby Bumps'. Also it seems it could be influenced by
Ladislaw starewicz because of its dark humor e.g. cyote gets blown up most people would take it serioulsy but when its animated its taken less serioulsy.
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