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Copy of Qualitative Reading Inventory 5

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on 30 June 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Qualitative Reading Inventory 5

4 steps for assessment
1. Identify what we want to assess

2. Collect information or evidence

3. Analyze the evidence
4 Purposes of Reading Assessment
1. Identify good reading behaviors

2. Collect information or evidence

3. Analyze the evidence

4. Make a decision

According to JoAnne Caldwell, "Instead we need to know what specific student reading behaviors indicate good reading and at what level of development," (Caldwell, p.5).

QRI-5 is one type of informal reading inventory that teachers can use to determine student's reading behaviors and at what levels they are reading.


My related experiences with QRI-5:
Participated in assessing student's reading ability via timed reading passages
Analyzed CBM data of student's reading fluency as a class and compared to grade level peers
Evaluated comprehension by asking students to retell a story after it was read
Conducted Running Records to determine student's guided reading levels
I have never used the QRI-5 to assess student's reading strengths and weaknesses,
I would like to use th e QRI-5 in the futre because it accurately identifies students reading ability and has multiple implications to assist teachers in pnanning and designing indiividualized instruction
Qualitative Reading Inventory 5
4. Make an informed decision
Individually administered
Informal reading inventory
Provides information about the conditions for successful word idenification and unsuccessful word identification or comprehension
Assess pre-k- high school students
Identifies reading levels (independent, frustration, and instructional
Uses graded word lists and passages to assess oral, silent, and listening ability
not norm-referenced or standardized
Results from the QRI are used for:
Estimating student's reading levels
Grouping students
Choosing appropriate books for literacy activities
Designing and evaluating instruction



Word Lists

Students are assessed via word lists
and reading passages
Pre-primers contain 17 words
All other lists-20
Word lists do 3 things
1. Assess word identification accurracy
2. Assess speed and automaticity of word identification
3. To determine a starting point for reading the initial passage

Passages

Used to assess student's ability to read and comprehend a variety of texts
Used to assess a student's listening level
Pre-primers 6 passages that increase in difficulty
5 are narratives/stories
1 is expository/informative












3 narratives/1 expository are presented with pictures
At second grade, there are 2 narratives w/pictures

"Research suggests that emergent readers depend on picture context for both word identification and passage comprehension, (Leslie & Caldwell, 2011, p.2)

Texts with pictures are also used because beginning readers are exposed to books with pictures

Teachers can evaluate students dependency on pictures for word identification by choosing both types of assessments to administer

Expository texts are available to assess at all reading levels
Each passage contains questions used to assess the understanding of 3-4 main concepts
Each passage contains a prediction task


3rd through 5th Grade Passages
3 narratives/3 expositories

Narratives for 4th-5th grade are biographies of famous people
Both familiar and unfamiliar people include
Helps teachers determine why students may struggle with comprehension and what role prior knowledge may play in reading
Expository texts are desciptive and cover science and social studies concepts
Range in familiarity which influences comprehension

Primer through 1st Grade Passages
6th grade passages
3 narrative passages
2 social studies passages
2 science passages
2 expository cover Ancient Egypt
Evaluators are able to use think alouds
Second passage can be used as a pre-post assessment
Can also be used for contrasting oral and silent reading and note-taking ability
Upper Middle School Passages
6 passages
2 represent middle school literature
(biographical or autobiographical)
2-Science
2-Social Studies
Can use think alouds
Can utilize pre and post assessment
All About the QRI-5
Word Lists/Passages
High School Passages
3 passages derived from representational literature
Including Biographys
Social Studies and
Science Text
No way to determine readability levels
Instead passages are models of typical high school content
Students required to read passages quietly at this level


How to Administer the QRI-5
Quiet, distraction free environment
Have materials ready
Engage in small talk to get to know student before beginning test
Prepare more score sheets than you might need
Highly recommended to prepare score sheets for all passages organized according to grade level
Record testing session, especially when inexperienced

Finding a Starting Point and Beginning the Passages
Give word list to student (pick a list 2 or more years below students' chronological grade placement to avoid frustration)
Score immediately
Administer prior-knowledge task for a passage before student reads it (allows evaluator to determine familiarity of content to student)
Give student the passages
If passages are used to determine instructional reading level, oral reading accuracy must be scored along with responses from comprehension questions
This tells evaluator what additional passages to administer
The score from the word lists determine which passage to start with
Overview of what you do and say when administering the QRI-5
Materials- student copies, examiner copies, clipboard, pencils, stop watch, and audio recorder
Word lists
- Introduce lists by informing student that some words will be easy and some might be difficult. Don't worry, you aren't expected to know all of them. I cannot help you in any way. Make sure you do your best.
Concept Questions
-Introduce by informing students that you want to know what students know before they read and that you will ask them a couple questions.
Prediction Task- Say, "Given that the title of the passage is ______, and it includes ______, ______, and _________ (name main concepts in questions), what do you think the passage will be about? I want you to take a guess or make a prediction about what you think the passage will be about."
Passages- Introduce by saying, "You now get to show me how you can read on your own. We'll see how well I pick things for you to read to some you will read out loud and some you can read to yourself. Do you understand so far?
Retelling- remove the passage and have student retell as if they are talking to someone who has not read the passage before.
Questions- after retelling, ask questions and it is teacher's choice whether student can use look back procedure
Word Lists Provide Information Intended to:
Estimate starting point of passages
Estimate automatic word identification
Estimate knowledge of letter-sound matches
Estimate knowledge of patterns
Analyze difference between word identification in isolation and in context
Scoring Word Lists
When finding a beginning point for a passage, count the # of correct responses and guidelines for determining independent, instructional, or frustration levels are included on each word list
If student scores at instructional or frustration level, the examiner should move down until independent level is found and continue upward till student reaches frustration level
Estimate a student's automatic word recognition by finding the number of words identified correctly in one second
Do not use this assessment in isolation (some students recognize words easier in context)
Teachers can use the Reading by Analogy test to assess students ability to decode words with similar letter-sound patterns
This test is a great way for teachers to evaluate whether students recognize words primarily by memory or if they apply reading strategies in decoding unknown words
Examiners can note whether a word is missed on the list, but read correctly in the passage to find out if students are better equipped to read words in context
Using the QRI to Access Prior Knowledge
2 methods for assessing prior knowledge-
concept questions and/or predictions
3-5 concept questions
3 points for precise definition
2 points for example of concept
Score prediction task by counting the # of idea statements student predicts

After the correct passage to begin with has been determined by the word list, the evaluator records any and all miscues made by the student while reading
(It is suggested that evaluator record session)
Some types of miscues to look for and identify are:
substitution
omission
insertion
self-correction
reversal
punctuation ignored
miscues that change meaning
Analyzing student's miscues can provide teachers with additional information about students reading ability
A worksheet is provided so that teachers can keep track of student's miscues
This worksheet is used to find percentages of miscues made so that teachers can identify patterns or more common miscues for each individual student

Using Reading Rate to determine automaticity
oral and silent reading rates can suggest automaticity of word identification
oral and silent reading rates are measured in 1 minute intervals
# of words in passage multiplied by 60/secs will provide a words per minute score

How to Score Comprehension Questions
Ask questions after student retells story to best ability
(explicit and implicit questions)
Answers should be scored as either right or wrong and no half points given
Give credit for same information in different words
Criteria for determining Reading levels is found on p. 78 of QRI manual

Word identification
-
How accurate is student in identifying words?
How automatic is student in identifying words
Is there a difference between a student's ability to identify words in context and words in isolation?
Comprehension
-
What types of text can the student handle most successfully?
What modes of reading represent strengths for the student?
How does the student perform on familiar and unfamiliar text?
How does the student perform with look-backs and without look-backs?
What comprehension strategies does student employ while reading?
What is the extend of student's reading difficulty



The QRI-5 reading inventory is an excellent way to assess students reading abilities and reading levels
(Caldwell, 2008)
Caldwell, J. (2008) Reading
assessment: a primer for teachers and coaches (2nd ed.). New York, Guilford Press
Keenan, J. M., & Meenan, C. E. (2014). Test
Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits. Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 47(2), 125-135.
Leslie, L. & Caldwell, J. (2010) Qualitative
reading inventory-5 (5th ed.). Boston, Mass: Allyn and Bacon.
How to Record Oral Reading Miscues
After the correct passage has been determined by the world list, the evaluator records any and all miscues made by the student while reading
(recommended to record session)
Some types of miscues to identify are:
substitution
omission
insertion
self-correction
reversal
punctuation ignored
miscues that change meaning
Analyzing student's miscues can provide teachers with additional information about student's reading ability
A worksheet is provided so that teachers can keep track of student's miscues
This worksheet is used to find the percentage of miscues made so that teachers can identify patterns or more common miscues for each individual student
Summarizing Results-Questions to Ask Yourself
Discussion Questions
1. Is it possible for students to answer questions correctly about a passage without reading it first?
2. Do you agree with this statement? If looking back increases comprehension, this suggests that assessments that do not allow lookbacks may actually underestimate a student's level of comprehension
If a student takes more than one second to read a word is it still considered an automatic?
Do you think the scoring is subjective?

Research Implications
QRI-3 was one assessment among several in a five year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of DI and di reading programs.
QRI-4 was one assessment used as an assessment in a study involving fourth grade processing factors and literacy comprehension.
In a comprehensive study, authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using four reading comprehension tests, including the QRI-3. They compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%.
The authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%.

Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers.

Citations
Sample data sheet
Full transcript