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Disorders of the Nervous System

Human Anatomy and Physiology project.

Samantha Kennedy

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Disorders of the Nervous System

Disorders of the Nervous System Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: •Serious neurological disease that causes muscle weakness and disability
•Eventually results in the sick persons death
•Abbreviated ALS and is also called Lou Gehrig’s disease
•Can be interchanged with MND (Motor neuron disease)
•Begins with muscles weakening or twitching
Symptoms: 1. Speech slurring or trouble swallowing
2. Muscle cramps or twitching
3. Weakness in the Hands and Feet
4. Weakness in the limbs
5. This disease slowly progresses through the body making it weaker and weaker until certain body parts are paralyzed. Eventually it affects speech, breathing, swallowing, and the like.
Causes: 1. Gene Mutation: inherited and non-inherited forms of ALS are identical in the genetic mutation.
2. Chemical Imbalance: Too much Glutamate, which can kill some nerve cells
3. Protein Mishandling: Mishandled proteins lead to a buildup that eventually kills the nerve cell.
4. Disorganized Immune Response: Immune response begins attacking itself which results in ALS producing processes. Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis/DS00359 Alzheimer's Disease: •A slow, memory disintegrating disease
•Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia
•Connections between brain cells disintegrate and die
•Symptoms can be improved but there is no permanent cure.
Symptoms: 1. Persistent memory loss (Asking same question repeatedly, forget events or conversations, eventually loose memory of names of family or common objects)
2. Disorientation (What day it is, where they are, their current circumstances)
3. Reading and Writing skills decline
4. Loss of proper judgment or reaction
5. Routine planning or actions become a challenge
6. A range of Personality changes that include Depression, Mood swings, loss of inhibition, among various others.
Causes: 1. Scientists are not positive about the cause but suspect a combination of genetics, lifestyle, and environment
2. There are two things seen in the brain that scientists identify with Alzheimer’s: Plaques and Tangles. Plaques are clumps of beta-amyloid protein that damage brain cells, interfering with communication between them. Tangles are knots of the structurally important protein Tau, leading to a blockage in the transport system.
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alzheimers-disease/DS00161 Cerebral Palsy: •A disease of Muscle tone, movement, and posture
•Developed in early development or after injury
•Causes impaired movement, involuntary movements, and stiff limbs
•People with Cerebral Palsy often have intellectual deficiencies, seizures, or hearing or speech disabilities
Symptoms: 1. Spasticity (exaggerated movements)
2. Rigidity (Stiff muscles)
3. Ataxia (Lack of muscle coordination)
4. Favoring one side of the body
5. Trouble swallowing or excessive drooling
6. Speech difficulty
7. Precise movement difficulty
8. Difficulty eating
9. Muscle variations (Floppy or Stiff)
10. Seizures
11. Abnormal touch or pain reception
Causes: 1. Mutation of brain developing genes
2. Infection in the mother that affects the child
3. A sudden lack of blood to the fetus
4. A sudden lack of Oxygen to the fetus
5. Infant receives head injury
6. Inflammation in infants brain
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cerebral-palsy/DS00302 Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease: •Degenerative disease that leads to dementia and eventual death
•Symptoms are Dementia-like, similar to Alzheimer’s
•Progression is much more rapid than that of Alzheimer’s
•“Classic” Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has not been linked to contaminated beef
•This disease is extremely Rare
Symptoms: 1.Personality changes
2.Memory loss
5.Difficulty speaking or swallowing
6.Jerky sudden movements
8.Blurred vision
9.Impaired Thinking
10.Mental symptoms increase in severity as the disease progresses
Causes: 1. Random occurrence, appearing for seemingly no reason

2. Contamination

3. Inheritance
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease/DS00531 Encephalitis: •Inflammation of the brain
•Causes flu-like symptoms like fever or severe headache
•Can cause seizures or problems with senses or movement
•Often goes unnoticed, but severe causes, while rare, can be life-threatening
Symptoms: 1.Fever, headache, and fatigue are normal, non-alarming symptoms
2.Serious cases include: Severe headache
3.Altered consciousness
7.Double vision
9.Personality changes
10.Infants will get: bulging in frontals, Nausea and vomiting, constant crying, stiffness, poor feeding
Causes: 1. Viruses

2. Bacteria

3. Fungi

4. Parasites
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/encephalitis/DS00226 Epilepsy: •Disorder results from repetitive electrical surges in the brain, causing seizures to become a common occurrence
•Seizure severity varies from sitting and blinking in a daze to full on convulsions
•2 unprovoked seizures are necessary for a diagnosis of epilepsy
•Treatment reduces or eliminates the occurrence and severity of seizures
•Children may outgrow this disorder
Symptoms: 1. Staring spells
2. Temporary confusion
3. Uncontrollable limb jerking or twitching
4. Loss of consciousness

1. Simple and Complex Focal Seizures (complex being an increase in severity and loss of consciousness)
2. Absence Seizures: Brief loss of awareness, staring off into space
3. Tonic Seizures: Stiffening of muscles in the back and/or the limbs
4. Clonic Seizures: Rhythmic jerking muscle contractions (Arms, neck, and face)
5. Myoclonic Seizures: Sudden and brief muscle contractions
6. Atonic Seizures: Loss of normal muscle tone, can cause you to fall to the ground
7. Grand Mal Seizures: Most intense type of seizure, loss of consciousness, uncontrollable shaking, biting of tongue or loss of bladder control.
Causes: 1. Genetic Influence: Hereditary effects, inheritance of the specified gene
2. Medical Disorder: Strokes or heart attacks
3. Head Trauma: Car accident or other events that lead to severe head trauma
4. Dementia: This is the leading cause of epilepsy in older adults
5. Diseases: Meningitis, AIDS, or Viral Encephalitis
6. Development Disorders: Autism or Down Syndrome
7. Prenatal Injury: Brain Damage before birth
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/epilepsy/DS00342 •Body’s Immune System attacks the Nerves
•Can go from tingling in extremities to the body being completely paralyzed
•In its most severe, it can require emergency hospitalization
•Exact cause is unknown but it is preceded by an infectious illness of some sort
•Several treatments relieve symptoms but there is no known cure
•Weakness, numbness, and fatigue linger after recovery
Symptoms: 1. Prickling in fingers and toes
2. Weakness of the limbs
3. Unsteady or inability to walk
4. Difficulty moving eyes, chewing, swallowing, changing facial expression
5. Difficult bladder control or intestinal functions
6. Severe pain in the lower back
7. Difficulty breathing
Causes: 1. Infection effecting the lungs or digestive tract

2. Recent Surgery, immunization, or pregnancy

3. Comes out of seemingly nowhere
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/guillain-barre-syndrome/DS00413 Huntington's Disease: •An inherited disease causing the breakdown of nerve cells in the brain
•Has a rather large impact on someone’s ability to function (movement, thinking, psychiatric)
•Disease develops in 40’s and 50’s
•Juvenile Huntington’s Disease begins in the early 20’s and makes faster progress
•Medication is available for some symptoms but there is no cure and nerve cells will eventually completely break down
Symptoms: • Movement:
1. Involuntary jerking or writhing
2. Involuntary sustained contraction of muscles
3. Muscle rigidity
4. Slow uncoordinated movements
5. Impaired gait
6. Difficulty with speech production
7. Difficulty swallowing
• Cognitive:
1. Difficulty planning or organizing
2. Inability to begin a conversation or task
3. Lack of impulse control resulting in outburst
4. Lack of awareness
5. Difficulty focusing for long periods of time
6. Difficulty retaining new information
7. Problems with spatial perception
8. Lack of flexibility
9. Slow processing
• Psychiatric Disorders:
1. Sadness/Unhappiness
2. Social Withdrawal
3. Feeling worthless or guilty
4. Reduced sex drive
5. Changes in appetite
6. Frequent thoughts or death or suicide
7. Loss of desire to participate in normal activities
8. Loss of energy, exhaustion
• Juvenile Huntington’s Disease:
1. Loss of previously learned academic skills
2. Rapid drop in school performance
3. Behavioral problems
4. Contracted or rigid muscles effecting gait
5. Change in fine motor skills
6. Tremors or involuntary twitches
7. Seizures
Causes: 1. An inherited defect from a single gene, and the person only needs one copy of it to develop this disorder. There are two copies in the parent, one healthy and one defective. Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/huntingtons-disease/DS00401 Meningitis: •An inflammation of the meninges usually due to infection
•The swelling triggers headaches, fever, and a stiff neck
•Mostly caused by Viral infection, but bacterial and fungal infections can trigger it as well.
•It either resolves itself or becomes life-threatening
Symptoms: 1. High Fever
2. Stiff Neck
3. Nausea/vomiting
4. Seizures
5. Light sensitivity
6. Skin rash
7. Sleepiness
8. Severe headache
9. Difficulty concentrating or confusion
Causes: •Bacterial Meningitis:
1. Pneumococcus: Most common in cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, children, and adults. Causes pneumonia, or ear or sinus infections.
2. Meningococcus: Occurs when bacteria from upper respiratory infection enter the blood stream. Highly contagious, and affects mainly teens and young adults.
3. Haemophilus: Was the previous leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Tends to follow upper respiratory infection, or ear or sinus infection
4. Listeria: Can be found almost anywhere, including contaminated foods. People with weakened immune systems are most vulnerable.
•Viral Meningitis:
1. Causes more cases of meningitis than bacteria.
2. Usually mild and clears itself within two weeks
3. Causes rash, sore throat, diarrhea, joint aches, and headaches
•Chronic Meningitis:
1. Slow-growing organisms invade the meninges and fluid surrounding the brain.
2. Acute meningitis happens suddenly, while chronic meningitis develops over two weeks.
3. Symptoms between acute and chronic meningitis are very similar.
4. Chronic meningitis is rare
•Fungal Meningitis:
1. Relatively uncommon, causes chronic meningitis.
2. Can mimic acute meningitis
3. Cryptococcal meningitis affects people with a weakened immune system.
4. Life-threatening if not treated with antifungal medication.
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/meningitis/DS00118 Migraine: •Headache that causes intense throbbing or pulsing in a specific region of the head
•It’s commonly accompanied by Nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound
•Can last for hours to days and can be very severe
•Sometimes preceded by auras, flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling in the limbs
•Medication can reduce frequency and severity
Symptoms: •Prodome: Symptoms preceding Migraine
1. Constipation
2. Depression
3. Diarrhea
4. Food cravings
5. Hyperactivity
6. Irritability
7. Neck stiffness
•Aura: Typically builds up gradually and lasts 10-30 minutes
1. Seeing various shapes, bright spots, or flashes of light
2. Vision loss
3. Pin and needles in limbs
4. Speech or language problems

• Attack: Can last 4-72 hours untreated
1. Pain on one side of head
2. Pulsing, throbbing pain
3. Sensitivity to light, sound, and smell
4. Nausea or vomiting
5. Blurred vision
6. Diarrhea
7. Lightheadedness
• Postdrome: After the attack, final phase.
1. Drained feeling
2. Washed out feeling
3. Sometimes euphoria
Causes: 1. Hormonal Changes in Women: Fluctuations in estrogen levels, pregnancy, or changes in hormonal medications.
2. Foods: Alcohol, cheeses, chocolate, caffeine, salty or processed foods can cause migraines
3. Stress: Worrying about events at home or at work
4. Sensory Stimuli: Bright lights, sun glare, loud sounds, unusual smells
5. Changes in Sleeping Patterns: Missing sleep or getting too much of it
6. Physical Factors: Intense physical exertion
7. Environmental Changes: Changes in weather or pressure
8. Medications: changes in medication of any kind
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/migraine-headache/DS00120 Multiple Sclerosis •Immune system eats the myelin, or protective sheath, that covers your nerves
•Causes interference in communication between brain, spinal cord, and various other bodily locations
•May result in the deterioration of the nerves themselves
•Severe cases lose the ability to walk or speak clearly
•No cure but there are treatments for attacks and symptoms
Symptoms: 1. Numbness in limbs
2. Partial or complete loss of vision, accompanied by pain
3. Double or blurry vision
4. Tingling or pain in body parts
5. Certain head movements cause an electro-shock sensation
6. Tremors and lack of coordination
7. Slurring speech
8. Fatigue
9. Dizziness
10. Heat Sensitivity
Causes: 1. Ultimate cause is unknown, but it is believed to be autoimmune

2. Anything from genetics to childhood infections could play a role in its cause
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/multiple-sclerosis/DS00188 Myasthenia Gravis: • Weakness and rapid fatigue of voluntary muscles is a main characteristic
• Caused by a breakdown of communication between muscles and nerves
• Affects mainly women under 40 and men over 60
• No cure but treatments for symptoms are available
• Condition of muscles worsens with use Symptoms: • Eye Muscles:
1. Drooping of eyelids
2. Double vision
• Face and Throat Muscles:
1. Changes in Speaking: voice is very soft or nasally
2. Difficulty Swallowing: Difficult to eat, drink, swallow
3. Problems Chewing: Mastication muscles wear down halfway through a meal
4. Limited Facial Expression: muscles that give your face emotional expression have worn down
• Neck and Limb Muscles:
1. Weakness in neck, arms, and legs
2. Waddling when it affects your legs
3. Hard to hold your head erect
Causes: 1. Immune system produces antibodies that destroy receptor sites

2. Thymus gland is believed to be the culprit responsible for ordering the antibodies creation

3. Fatigue, Illness, Stress, Heat, and some medications can cause Myasthenia Gravis to worsen Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/myasthenia-gravis/DS00375 Parkinson's Disease: •Progressive disorder that effects your movement
•Development is gradual, starting as a tremor and causing stiffness
•Early stages show limited facial expression, slurred or soft speech, stiff muscles
•No cure, but treatments are available for symptoms
Symptoms: 1. Tremor in the limbs
2. Reduces or slows your ability to move, feet stick to the floor
3. Muscles become stiff and limit your motion range
4. Automatic movements or reflexes become harder to preform and less likely to occur
5. Slurring speech or a soft voice
6. Writing becomes difficult or appears small
Causes: 1. Genetics play a role, offering specific gene mutations, but this is very uncommon

2. Environment plays a role as well, exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors for an extended period of time may act as a trigger
Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/parkinsons-disease/DS00295 Poliomyelitis: • A contagious viral illness that can cause paralysis, breathing difficulties, and even death
• The last naturally occurring case of Polio in the United States was in 1979
• Still affects children in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan
• If travelling to Polio affected areas, take precautions.
• Booster shot provides lifetime immunity Symptoms: •Non-Paralytic polio:
1. Fever
2. Sore Throat
3. Headache
4. Meningitis
5. Neck stiffness or pain
6. Back stiffness or pain
7. Muscle Spasms
8. Fatigue
9. Vomiting
10. Pain in limbs
•Paralytic Polio:
1. Loss of reflexes
2. Severe muscle spasms or pains
3. Floppy, loose limbs, worse on one side that the other
• Post-Polio:
1. Progressive joint or muscle weakness and pain
2. Fatigue and Exhaustion
3. Muscle atrophy
4. Problems swallowing or breathing
5. Trouble breathing in sleep, sleep apnea
6. Low tolerance for cold temperatures Causes: 1. Solitarily a human disease, emerging from feces of the infected. Spreads through fecal matter or oral matters

2. Can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, or through contact with the infected.

3. Polio is Extremely Contagious Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/polio/DS00572 Reye Syndrome: •Rare, but serious as it causes swelling of the liver and brain
•Occurs mainly in children and teenagers recovering from viral infection
•Confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness require emergency treatment
•Aspirin has been linked to Reye’s Syndrome
Symptoms: • Early symptoms for babies:
1. Diarrhea
2. Rapid Breathing
• Early symptoms for children and teens:
1. Persistent vomiting
2. Lethargy or unusual sleepiness
• Additional symptoms:
1. Irritability, aggressiveness, or irrationality
2. Confusion, disorientation, hallucinations
3. Weakness or paralysis in limbs
4. Seizures
5. Excessive lethargy
6. Decreased consciousness
Causes: 1. Ultimate cause unknown, but several things may play a role

2. Aspirin taken to treat a viral illness or infection by a child or teen with a underlying fatty acid oxidation disorder may trigger Reye’s Syndrome

3. Reye’s syndrome could be an underlying metabolic condition unmasked by a viral illness.

4. Exposure to toxins may also contribute Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/reyes-syndrome/DS00142 Stroke: • Occurs when blood supply to brain is interrupted or reduced, depriving it of oxygen and food, causing brain cells to die
• Considered a Medical emergency, prompting immediate action
• Strokes can be treated and prevented, death rates being far lower than they were some years ago Symptoms: 1. Trouble walking, stumbling, sudden dizziness

2. Trouble speaking and comprehending, confusion, slurring words

3. Paralysis or numbness of face or limbs, sudden numbness

4. Trouble seeing with both eyes, blurred or blackened vision

5. Severe Headache, vomiting, altered consciousness Causes: •Ischemic Stroke: 85% of strokes, arteries in brain become narrow or blocked, reducing blood flow
1. Thrombotic stroke, occurring when blood clot forms in artery providing blood to the brain, caused by fatty deposits or other artery conditions
2. Embolic stroke, occurring when blood clot forms away from brain, commonly in the heart, and flows with the blood to be caught in a narrow brain artery
•Hemorrhagic Stroke: Blood vessel in brain ruptures or leaks, occurring because of a variety of artery conditions, including high blood pressure and weak spots.
1. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, occurring when a blood vessel bursts in the brain and spills into surrounding blood tissue, depriving brain cells beyond that point of blood and oxygen.
2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, occurring when a blood vessel near the surface bursts and spills into space between brain and skull, causing pressure and a severe headache.
•Transient Ischemic Attack: a Ministroke or brief episode of stroke-like symptoms, caused by a temporary decrease in blood and oxygen supply to the brain, lasting less than five minutes. Occurs when debris or a clot block blood flow, but it doesn’t leave lasting symptoms.
West Nile Virus: Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stroke/DS00150 • Caused by infection transmitted by mosquito bite
• Most people don’t experience any signs or symptoms, but the people who have it develop inside them are left with a life-threatening illness including inflammation of the brain
• Mild symptoms go away on their own but severe symptoms require immediate medical attention Symptoms: • Mild infection:
1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Eye pain
4. Skin Rash
5. Headache
6. Body aches
7. Swollen Lymph Glands
8. Back pain
• Serious Infection:
1. High Fever
2. Stiff neck
3. Stupor or coma
4. Tremors
5. Lack of coordination
6. Pain
7. Convulsions
8. Severe Headache
9. Partial paralysis
10. Disorientation
Causes: 1. Infection is transmitted through infection carrier mosquito bite

2. Infected organ transplant or blood transfusion

3. Mother to child during pregnancy or breast-feeding is questionable Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/west-nile-virus/DS00438 By: Samantha Kennedy
Human Anatomy 5th Hour Mr. Pettibone
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