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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Child Labor in the Manchester Mills
BEST ECONOMIC SYSTEM
Industialization Spreads to Continental Europe
Begins in Belgium
By: Melissa Neary
The Agricultural Revolution began when wealthy landowners bought much of the land and farming methods had to be improved
one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land
Large population of workers
Extensive natural resources
Water power and coal to fuel the new machines
Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
Rivers for inland transportation
Harbors from which its merchant ships set sail
Investors in new inventions
Highly developed banking system
Factors of Production:
land, labor, and capital
1733: John Kay
boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached (used in weaving)
1764: James Hargreaves
1769: Richard Arwright
1779: Samuel Crompton
1787: Edmund Cartwright
1793: Eli Whitney
1765: James Watt
1807: Robert Fulton
It allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time
It used water power from rapid streams drive spinning wheels
It combined the spinning jenny and water frame to make better quality thread
It was run by water power and it sped up weaving
It removed cotton seeds from the cotton and as a result, cotton production multiplied
It was used in mining in 1705, and in 1765, Watt made it more efficient
He made the first steamboat in America, called "Clermont," and it went up and down the Hudson River
1836: Samuel F. B. Morse
A machine was programmed to create dots and lines on a piece of paper, also known as Morse Code
1876: Alexander Graham Bell
The telephone allowed people to talk electronically
Led Europe in adopting Britain’s new technology
had rich deposits of iron and coal
also had fine waterways for transportation
a carpenter, William Cockerill, made his way to Belgium
Carried secret plans for building spinning machinery
Cockerill’s son john made a massive industrial enterprise
this produced machinery, steam engines, and railway locomotives
started when government constructed railroads
railroads created a thriving national market for new french products
there was regional specialisation with mining
forestry in Norrland
mechanical engineering, power utilities, papermaking and textile were created
the spinning industry was forced to mechanize in order to compete with British textiles
Other elements of the Swiss textile industries in cotton, silk, and linen also mechanized and adapted to the international competition
the swiss also used electricity, controlled by water, for power
The northern town of Manchester became the new industrial city when its economy unexpectedly grew at a very quick rate.
Which System Is Best?
Socialism, Capitalism, Communisim
Venn Diagram of Socialism, Capitalism & Communisim
Socialism & Communisim
Socialism & Capitalism
Capitalism & Communism
The success of the mills was due to its workers. the money the mills made went to the upper and middle class. The working class remained poor.
pockets of industrialization appeared since Germany was divided
started in coal-rich valleys of west central Germany
began to import British equipment and engineers
also sent their children to Britain to learn industrial management
Built railroads that linked from big cities to coal and iron deposits
-The rich get richer and
the poor get poorer
-Based upon private ownership
Children made up a significant amount of the factory workers. Children as young as six worked in factories with their parents.
Children worked six days a week in terrible conditions 16 to 18 hours a day.
They were beat by the factory supervisers to keep them awake and working.
There were many injuries caused by the hazardous machinery in the dimly lit and unsanitary factory.
Developed new technology
Eventually made working and living conditions better
Child Labor Timeline of their day
Abolition of Slavery
11: 00 PM
40 minute break
the only break of the day
child get sleepy and are wipped
- Union: Voluntary associations workers joined to press for reforms
-Collective Bargaining: Negotiations between workers and their employers that unions engaged in
-Strike: Unions would refuse to work if owners would not meet their demands
-Slow, painful growth
-Governments saw Unions as threats
-The British Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 made unions and strikes illegal
-Workers joined unions anyways
-In 1824 the British Combination Acts were repealed
-Raising wages and improving working conditions were the shared goals of British Unions
-British Unions won the right to strike/picket peacefully in 1875
-The United States' American Federation of Labor (AFL) was founded by several unions together in 1886
the children workers eat their evening meal on the run, no break
workers go home
those who worked extra now go home
-British Parliment set up a committee to inspect child labor in 1832.
-The British Factory Act of 1833 made it illegal for children age 8 and under to work, and restricted the hours that young people could work
-British Mines Act of 1842 made it illegal for children and women to work in mines
-British Ten Hours Act of 1847 prevented women and children from working more than ten hours a day
-In the United States, the National Child Labor Committee was formed in 1904 by progressive reformers to end child labor
-In 1919 the United States' Supreme Court objected a federal child labor law
-William Wilberforce led fight for the abolition of slavery in British Parliment
-Slave trade ended in the British West Indies in 1807 by a bill passed in Parliment
-Slavery was abolished in the British Empire in 1833
-Slavery of African Americans ended in 1865 in the United States
-Ended with the Union winning the Civil War
-Puerto Rico ended slavery in 1873
-Cuba ended slavery in 1886
-Brazil ended slavery in 1888
-Factory work offered women higher wages than they could make at home
-Men made 2/3 more than women in factories
-Women led reforms for social and work issues
-Jane Addams ran settlement houses, for poor residents
-Women began to believe that they should have equal rights regardless of gender
-This started the Women's Rights Movements around 1848
-In 1888 the International Council of Women was formed
Economy run by government and private individuals
Depends on what you are looking for in a government! Communisim works well in theory, but in real life, dictators seem to let the power go to their head, and forget to share the wealth. Capitalism tends to leave a wide wealth gap between the rich and the poor, but offers a way to work up the ladder. Socialism can also be a restrictive government with high costs and big government, but has many social programs. Basically, no system is greater than the other, it is how the system is used that determines how great it is.
Many jobseekers from rural areas moved to the cities after the factory system grew substancially in the 1800s.
This was knowna as the urbanization period. Cities in Europe quadrupled in size.
The European countries were unsanitary with no health plans or sanitation systems. The garbage was thrown into the streets.
Workers lived in tenaments where serveral families lived conjoined in one small, dar, and dirty room.
Sickness developed, Colhera being one of them.
Workers spent on average 14 hours a day in the factory and having only Sunday as their day off.
The factories were poorly lit or clean which made it a dangerous environment to work in- people got injured.
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution:
The factory owners, shippers, merchants, wealthy farmers, and business people made up the middle class.
Then a larger middle class arose that consisted of doctors, lawyers, and government employees.
The lower class of the poor workers were frusterated when they saw no improvement in their own class. they continued to be poor and live in terrible conditions everyday. They were losing their jobs to the machines and responded with damaging machinery.
The industrial revolution created many jobsfor workers and made the nation more money.
There was technological progression and new inventions arising.
It expanded educational oppertunities
The middle and upper classes were thriving and lives were improved