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Teaching Speaking and Listening

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on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Speaking and Listening

Table of Contents
Communicative Competence
Second language speaking
Teaching Speaking and Listening
by: Sabrina, Lukas, Verena, Anna
1) Communicative Competence
2) Listening
3) Second language speaking
4) Stages for fluent communication
Awareness
Appropriation
Autonomy
5) Teachers as a non-native speakers of English
6) Example Speaking Activity
7) Activity
8) Discussion
Good listeners make good speakers, and
vice-versa.
45%
30%
16%
9%
listening
speaking
reading
writing
Three Stages of Fluent Communication
Awareness
Appropriation
Autonomy
Discussion
Good listeners make good speakers, and
vice-versa.

Activity
[Hedge 2000: 228]
A competent second language speaker is someone who . . .
- has good pronunciation
- can speak fluently and with few or no grammatical mistakes
- can speak effectively and clearly in various situations
- speaks in a manner indistinguishable from a native speaker
- can communicate well with native speakers


[Goh & Burns 2012: 50]
Communicative strategies
Knowledge of language and discourse
Core speaking skills
Fluency,
accuracy,
and complexity
[Goh & Burns 2012: 139]
Lack of fluency
Secure
forms of classwork
Role as a model?
Classroom atmosphere?
What is "autonomy"
The ability to speak freely and fluently, especially in situations you can not prepare for
automaticity of language production
characteristics of a "skilled performer"
- speed -economy -accuracy
-anticipation -reliability
skilled performer!
Autonomy means
gaining control
over
skills
using them freely
boost of self- confidence
willingness to
take further
risks
YAY!
How can you get there?
- minimal assistance in speaking activities
-permit students to take risks
try "real operating conditions"!
Why?
they involve:
-unpredictability
-spontaneity
-real-life speech events
How?
makes sure your tasks meet the following criteria:
- productivity
-purposefulness
-interactivity
-challenge
-safety
-authenticity
Correcting students and giving feedback without crashing their self-confidence?!
Goh, C. M. Christine and Anne Burns.
Teaching Speaking: A Holistic
Approach
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2012. Print.
Thornbury, Scott.
How to teach speaking
. Harlow: Longman, 7th ed. 2009.
Print.
Müller-Hartmann, Andreas and Marita Schocker-v. Ditfurth.
Introduction to
English Language Teaching
. Stuttgart: Klett, 2011.
Print.
Ashford, Stephanie, Noreen O'Donovan, Helmut Reisener, Wolfgang Funk.
Learning English Swift 2: Für Englisch als 2. Fremdsprache.
Stuttgart:
Klett, 2000. Print.
Asford, Stephanie, Noreen O'Donovan, Helmut Reisener, Wolfgang Funk.
Learning English Swift 3: Für Englisch als 2. Fremdsprache.

Stutgart: Klett, 2001. Print.
References
Process of constructing knowledge through social interaction
"Taking over the ownership of something."
3 types of activities:

Practised control
Drilling

Chants
not mechanically repeating something
rather gaining control of short, functional chunks
short, multi-word sequences are repeated
Oral production
Spoken interaction
Oral mediation
producing an oral text to an audience
no interaction
Example:

Reading aloud
step between writing and speaking
concentrates on pronunciation; no pressure to construct a text
user acts as speaker and listener
interaction between 2 or more persons
Example:
Dialogues
items on board
flow-diagram conversation
Discussion
CLT
express someones opinion
mediate between 2 speakers of different languages
Example:
summarize/paraphrase a text
translation
Task 1: Speaking
Task 2: Listening
Please create an activity based on your text.
Speaking: 7/8 graders
Listening: 9/10 graders
Example Speaking Activity
Teachers as non-native speakers of English
[White 1998: 6]
[White 1998: 6]
White, Goodith.
Listening.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.
attention
-paying attention

-being interested
noticing
-difference between own performance & expert's performance

=> "noticing the gap"
understanding
- no real awareness without understanding

-recognition of general rules
"listening comprehension is a very complex process in which different types of both linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge are involved."
2 types of knowledge
bottom-up-view:

- knowlege of the language

- speech => sounds which we structure in terms of words, phrases & sentences
purposes of listening
- public announcements

- listening to media

- as a member of a live audience

-listening to overheard conversations
interactive strategies
- developing listening skills


listening
top-down-view:

- knowledge a listener brings to a text

- "inside-the-head" information

- knowledge of context (understanding)

- knowledge of details

easy or difficult?
- comprehension checks
- clarification requests
- self-repetition
teaching of listening
1. pre-listening

- listening purpose
- activate learner's knowledge
- context (overview)
2. while-listening

- focus of listening
- understanding the text
- true/false-statements, filling the gaps
3. post - listening

- consolidation of the language
(practice phrases, learn connectors)

- extension of content
(summary, solving a problem)
Fluency-based activities
Full transcript