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Copy of Microbiology
Transcript of Copy of Microbiology
tract harbors one of the
10e+11 - 10e+12
of luminal content
*Firmicutes & Bacteroidetes most abundant (>96%)
1 member of Archaea
1,800 genera and 16,000 phylotypes at species level
dynamic subset of 160 species
(Rajilic-Stojanovic et al. 2007)
Microbial Ecology of the Gut
The Role of Microbiota in Immune Function
Competing with pathogenic bacteria
(Buffie & Pamer, 2013)
Producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) crucial for colonic epithelial cell growth and differentiation (Natividad and Verdu, 2013)
Stabilizing tight junctions of intestinal epithelium through interaction with integrins
(Segawa et al. 2011)
Buffie CG & Pamer EG (2013). Microbiota-mediated colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Nature Reviews Immunology 13:790–801
The Role of Microbiota in Metabolism
Provide capability of
indigestible plant polysaccharides
, biotransformation of conjugated bile acids,
of oxalates, &
(Xu & Gordon, 2003)
of plant polysaccharides provides
10-30% of daily energy
from a Western diet (Raj et al. 2008)
, particularly butyrate, provide
of the large intestine
enterocyte energy requirements
(Walter & Ley, 2011)
with metabolic traits they did
not need to evolve
on their own
genes for the
El Kaoutari et al. (2013) Abundance and variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the human gut microbiota.
Nature Reviews Microbiology
, 11, 497-504
Human-Microbiota Coevolution & Implications for Human Health
and, in periods of food scarcity,
relied mainly on starch
-rich roots & bulbs, especially in dry savannahs (Walter & Ley, 2011)
The grandmother hypothesis
proposed that the
foraging and sharing
of underground storage units for
, bulbs and tubers
essential for the nourishment of children
, allowed more pregnancies in
and thus greater
(O’Connell et al. 1999)
Importance of Microbial Fermentation of Plant Polysaccharides in Human Evolution
larger body & brain
of modern human ancestors (genus
) was likely facilitated by acquisition of
, as additional energy from plants would
consumed from being metabolized for energy,
its use in
building tissue mass instead
(Aiello & Wells, 2002)
It has been advocated that the current pandemic of
"diseases of civilisation"
results in part from the
(Kuipers et al. 2012)
Past & Present Mismatch
by mammalian gut but known to s
the growth of
, preventing colonization by
(Milena-Marques et al. 2010)
Vertical Transmission of the Microbiota
Parent–offspring and/or kin–offspring transmission of microbiotas promotes the coevolution of whole communities with their host species by stabilizing the associations between particular host and microbial lineages
(Ley et al. 2008)
The 1st microbial communities of the newborn's gut are determined by the microbial communities of the mother’s vagina & skin, and transmitted during birth & nursing
(Matamoros et al. 2013)
in the mother's vagina & breast milk, suggesting that
important in promoting neonate health
Importance of Microbiota-Human Coevolution
I suggest that the
extends to our
Beyond the Hygiene Hypothesis
De Filippo, C., Cavalieri, D., Di Paola, M., Ramazzotti, M., Poullet, J.B.,Massart, S., Collini, S., Pieraccini, G., and Lionetti, P. (2010). Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
Numerous studies show a
such as Type 1 diabetes, lupus, asthma, MS, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, celiac disease, & Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) including Crohn's, ulcerative colitis & irritable bowel syndrome
(Madupu et al. 2013; Clemente et al. 2012).
New methods of delivery:
to certain pathogens, necrotizing enterocolitis and atopic diseases seen in babies delivered by
(Biasucci et al. 2010)
stability of gut microbiota largely based on
by the gut immune system, which identifies these as
to- and sampling of their microbial antigens
(Krajmalnik-Brown et al. 2012)
that can produce a
variety of SCFAs
(De Filippo et al. 2010). The presence of SCFAs is generally associated with reduced inflammation
The Human Microbiome Project
a & higher abundance of aerobic bacteria in the GI of
relative to breast-fed infants correlated strongly with
childhood allergies & asthma
(Palmer et al. 2007)
Dysbiosis in Modern Societies
More reasons to eat fiber:
The HMP - an
extension of the Human Genome Project
effort joining multiple projects launched
, including in the US, Europe and Asia.
the distribution and evolution of the
, which may lead to new
for food production, distribution & consumption, formulated
based on knowledge of the microbiome.
study of 49 infants showed that children who were
overweight at age 7
had higher levels of
lower levels of Bifidobacteria
(milk & vaginal birth) during infancy
(Karlsson et al. 2013)
, known to
than in healthy controls
Importance of Vaginal Delivery & Breast-Feeding:
The microbiome of various anatomical locations of the human body. From: Yun Kyung Lee and Sarkis K. Mazmanian (2010). Has the Microbiota Played a Critical Role in the Evolution of the Adaptive Immune System? Science 330, 1768
Cause or Effect?
In one study published in Nature (2006),
They found that the
, which contained more CAZ genes, appeared to
extract more energy
than did the lean microbiota.
Mice that received the
of body fat
than mice receiving the 'lean microbiota' (
vs 0.86%), suggesting that
microbiota shifts caused obesity
in these mice.
(Qin et al. 2012)
and levels of
with gut microbiota from
lean healthy donors
(Vrieze et al. 2012)
been used to treat several
such as refractory
colitis (CDC), pseudomembranous enterocolitis and ulcerative colitis (Duplessis et al. 2012).
The Human Microbiota
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Microbiota of the Human Body