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Ch. 29 Civil Rights
Transcript of Ch. 29 Civil Rights
Ch. 29 Taking on Segregation
Section 1 I. The segregation System Civil Rights Act of 1875
outlawed segregation in public facilities 1883: all-white Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional. A. Plessy V. Ferguson 1896 "separate but equal"
law did not violate the 14th Amendment (All Americans equal treatment under the law.) Jim Crow Laws:
aimed at separating the races B. A Developing Civil Rights Movement WW II sets the stage for the civil rights movement 1. labor shortage opened up new job opportunities
2. Veterans determined to fight for their own freedom
3. Civil Rights groups stage some successful protest II. Challenging Segregation in Court A. The NAACP Legal Strategy Inequality between the separate schools
Thurgood Marshall B. Brown V. Board of Education Struck down segregation in schooling as an unconstitutional violation of the 14 Amendment III. Reaction to the Brown Decision A. Crisis in Little Rock
"Little Rock Nine"
National Guard turns them away Eisenhower forced to act!
National Guard under federal control
nation watched the T.V. converage of the even Eisenhower forced to Act!
Placed National Guard under federal control
Nation watches on T.V. Civil Rights Actof 1957
Gave attorney general power over school desegregation. IV. Martin Luther King and the SCLC A. Changing the World With Soul Force
non-violent resistance "soul force"
even after a wave of racial violence in the South
Emmett Till 14 year old boy1955 B. From the Grassroots Up Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of 2nd class citizenship Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
student protesters V. The Movement Spreads A. Demonstrating For Freedom sit-ins
African-Americans protesters sat down at segregated lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served
T.V. captured the events The Triumphs of a Crusade
Section 2 I. Riding for Freedom What did the freedom riders hope to achieve? Call attention to the South's refusal to abandon segregation so as to pressure the fed. govt. to enforce the Supreme court's desegregation rulings. II. Standing Firm A. Heading Into Birmingham Continued protest, an economic boycott, and negative media coverage finally convinced Birmingham officials to end segregation.
Convinced President Kennedy that only a new civil rights act could end racial violence. Key players
Martin Luther Kin, Jr.
Eugen "Bull" connor
TV cameras B. Kennedy Takes a Stand "Are we to say to the world-and much more importantly, to each other-that this is the land of the free, except for the negroes?" June 11, 1963, force Gov. George Wallace to honor a court order to desegregate the University of Alabama Medgar Evers: sniper murdered the NAACP field secretary III. Marching to Washington A. The Dream of Equality
Summoned Americans to march on Washington, D.C.
spur passage of the civil rights bill B. More Violence IV. Fighting for Voting Rights A. Freedom Summer Why did civil rights groups organize Freedom Summer?
Hoped to call attention to the lack of voting rights in segregationist strongholds and to promote passage of a federal voting rights act June 1964
3 civil rights workers disappeared in Mississippi
Klansmen/local police murdered 3 of the men, 2 were white. B. The Selma campaign Voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama
50 mile protest march from Selma to Montgomery, the State capital C. Voting Rights Act of 1965
eliminated the so-called literacy tests. Civil Rights Act of 1964:
prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, Civil Rights Act of 1964:
prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender. origin, and gender. Challenges and Changes in the Movement
Section 3 I. African Americans Seek Greater Equality 'New leaders emerged as attention turned to the North
Change peoples attitudes (de facto segregation: practice and customs) A. Urban Violence Erupts 1960's
De facto segregation
run down communities and schools
high unemployment II. New Leaders Voice Discontent Malcolm X: take complete control of their communities livelihoods, and culture. Why did some Americans find Malcolm X's views alarming?
He blamed black poverty and social inferiority on whites and advocated armed resistance to white oppression A. Black Power Stokely Carmichael: the slogan became the battle-cry of militant civil rights activists Black Panthers: political organization; fight police brutality and provided services in the ghetto III.1968-A Turning Point in Civil Rights A. Kings Death
Killed by James Earl Ray