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Concepts of Nutrition in...

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Darlene Ventenilla

on 19 September 2013

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Transcript of Concepts of Nutrition in...

Concepts & Issues
of Nutrition in...

presented by:
Infants (0 to 12 mos)
Toddlerhood (1 to 3 yrs)
Preschool (3 to 5 yrs)
School-Age (6 to 12 yrs)
Adolescence (13 to 18 yrs)
Infants should be breast-fed or formula-fed until 12 mos.
variety of foods should be introduced
small portions are most appealing
toddlers should drink 16-24 oz of milk daily and only 4-6 oz of 100% juice daily
diet is similar to toddlers
they are known to be "picky eaters"
they enjoy eating with others
they like to take initiative and help with preparation and table setting
school age
this is a period of gradual growth
they are responsible for preparing their own snacks, lunches, and other meals
Dietary Deficiencies
Required calorie intake:
girls: 1,200 kcal/day | boys: 1,400 kcal/day
Required calorie intake:
1,000 kcal/day
Required calorie intake:
300 kcal/day at one month to
800 kcal/day by 12 months.
Required calorie intake:
girls: 1,600 kcal/day | boys: 1,800 kcal/day
most teens experience growth spurts
they eat what their friends eat
many love to eat fast foods
Required calorie intake:
girls: 2,000 kcal/day | boys: 2,200 kcal/day
Maternal & Child Nursing Care, 3rd Edition, London, 2011, Pearson
Eating Healthy
Current Issues
Childhood Obesity
The parents of a young child ask the nurse if they should be concerned that their child who just turned 3 years old gained just 5 pounds in the last year. Which of the following responses would be appropriate for the nurse to make?
answer: A
Eating Healthy
Organized information for parents and children
Includes information for children in preschool, and children over 5 years old to meet the specific needs of the age groups
Interactive games that help educate children the importance of proper nutrition and portion control in a fun and interesting way
WIC or other state/federal funding
-- Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides Federal grants to States for supplemental foods, health care referrals, and nutrition education for low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women, and to infants and children up to age five who are found to be at nutritional risk.
Current Issues:
Food Labeling Requirements for Retail Food / Vending Machines
FDA proposal for retail food establishments with 20+ businesses or vending machines that mainly sell food
Requirements: calorie display, suggested daily caloric intake, make additional nutritional information available (total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, trans fat, sodium, total carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber and protein)

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Nation's largest philanthropy devoted solely to the public's health
Info/resources on nutrition, preventative care, health policy, etc.
answer: A, C, D
At a well child visit, the parents of two teenagers express concern about their teenage daughter’s weight. The children are home schooled and eat all of their meals at home. The parents say they control the portion sizes of the food they serve and the boy and girl eat exactly the same thing. If the children are eating exactly the same thing, why might the nurse say the daughter’s weight is increasing? Select all that apply.
a) Boys’ calorie requirements tend to be greater than girls’
b) Obviously, the girl sneaking food
c) Generally, teenage boys have more muscle mass than girls
d) The daughter may not be as physically active as the boy, so she
needs fewer calories
e) The daughter must have a slow metabolism
Boys’ calorie requirements tend to be greater than girls’. Because they are more active, they burn more calories. And they also have more muscle mass than girls do, which require them to have more food intake.
alyson brown
cassandra macasieb
darlene ventenilla
Children consuming more calories than they burn through physical activity and normal growth cause childhood obesity.

BMI: calculated by age and sex

Overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex (CDC.gov).

Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex (CDC.gov).
Risk Factors: Food & Beverage
Regularly consuming high calorie foods such as fast food and vending machine snacks

Increased consumption of sugar and high fructose corn syrup that is present in soda and fruit juice
Defined as an inadequate supply of essential nutrients (as vitamins and minerals) in the diet resulting in malnutrition or disease
answer: A
The best recommendation is to allow the child to feed herself because the child’s stage of development is the preschool period of initiative. Special dishes would enhance the primary recommendation. The child should be offered new foods and choices, not just served her favorite foods. Using a small table and chair would also enhance the primary recommendation.
allow the child to feed herself
a) Allow the child to feed herself
b) Use specially designed dishes for children – for example, a plate
with the child’s favorite cartoon character
c) Only serve the child’s favorite foods
d) Allow the child to eat at a small table and chair by herself
Cristina, a mother of a 4-year-old child tells the nurse that her child is a very poor eater. What’s the nurse’s best recommendation for helping the mother increase her child’s nutritional intake?
...health concerns:
childhood obesity
dietary deficiencies
Risk Factors of
Childhood Obesity
Regularly consuming high calorie foods such as fast food and vending machine snack.

Increased consumption of sugar and high fructose corn syrup that is present in soda and fruit juice.
food & beverage
television & media
Children 8-18 years of age spend an average of 7.5 hours a day using entertainment media, including TV, computers, video games, cell phones, and movies. Of those 7.5 hours, about 4.5 hours is dedicated to viewing TV.

Children see up to 10,000
commercials a year about food.
Lack of Physical Activity
Less children attend physical education at school.

No safe or desirable place within the community to be active.
health implications
More than one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese.
Childhood obesity alone is responsible for $14.1 billion in direct costs.

Improvements in the U.S.
Important in children because they can suffer life-long implications if not met during developing years
Imbalanced intake
- Lack of nutrient dense foods in diet
Lack of intake due to:
1) Poverty- One in ten households in the U.S
experience hunger or the risk of hunger
2) Picky eaters
3) Malabsorption and/or chronic disease can lead
to developmental delay

Iron deficiency can cause low energy and slows cognitive function

Vitamin D-3 plays an essential role in hormone regulation, immunity, and mental process This is especially important in developing teenagers

Calcium/Magnesium are important for developing bones, nerve and muscle

Common nutritional deficiencies
in developing children:
a) The child gained an appropriate amount of weight in this period.
b) The child should have gained at least 8 pounds in this period.
c) The child should have gained just 2.5 pounds in this period.
d) The child should have gained twice that amount in this period.

The approximate weight gain of a child during the second year of life is 5 pounds.
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