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Transcript of Socio-Cultural
Principles of Sociocultural Level of Analysis
Social Identity Theory
Social Learning Theory
Ross et al (1977) activity
Levels of Analysis
Bandura "Bobo Doll"
Social and Cultural Norms
Principle 2: Culture influences behavior.
Principle 3: Because humans are social animals, they have a social self.
Principle 4: People's views of the world are resistant to change.
This means that they are motivated to have important relationships with other people.
Errors in attribution
HW: watch video and complete quiz
Socio Cultural Cognition
Prejudice and Discrimination
This means that humans create and shape culture and they are influenced by their culture.
Group membership give rise to social identities (ingroups) and comparison with other groups (outgroups). This might lead to bias in information processing (stereotyping) and discrimination.
1. Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis
2. Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies).
3. Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, participant/naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies).
4. Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis.
5. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behavior.
6. Discuss two errors in attributions (for example, fundamental attribution error, illusory correlation, self-serving bias).
7. Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies.
8. Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior.
9. Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies.
10. Discuss the use of compliance techniques (for example, lowballing, foot-in-the-door, reciprocity).
11. Evaluate research on conformity to group norms.
12. Discuss factors influencing conformity (for example, culture, groupthink, risky shift, minority influence).
How do we attach meaning to other's behavior, or our own?
“Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment” (Fiske, & Taylor, 1991)
Heider (1958) believed that people are naive psychologists trying to make sense of the social world. People tend to see cause and effect relationships even where there is none!
Heider didn’t so much develop a theory himself as emphasize certain themes that others took up. There were two main ideas that he put forward that became influential.
1. When we explain the behavior of others we look for enduring internal attributions, such as personality traits. For example we attribute the behavior of a person to their naivety or reliability or jealousy.
2. When we try to explain our own behavior we tend to make external attributions, such as situational or environment.
Zimbardo prison experiment
our social identity is important as it defines who we are and these behaviors are determined by social groups (such as memberships, communities, clubs, nationality or family).
Evaluation: A study that demonstrated conformity and thus shows that our social and cultural environments may affect us thus result in conforming to a group or social norm. May result in a social norm. Thus because of the multicultural society we live in; where is a need to understand the effect of culture on a persons behavior because the study of culture may help us to better understand and appreciate cultural difference.
These principles are the main ideas that have driven focused research on specific areas of how our environment can influence our behavior.
Behavior can be influenced by the social and cultural environment. For example, in our culture we eat with a knife and fork, but in other cultures, you may use a chop stick.
Asch 1951: Conformity
These identities reflect the influence of society on oneself and have been seen to extensively affect our behavior. This principle give rise to the fact that people not only have a individual identity but also a collective or social one.
Aim: To see how social representations of Brixton affected the identity of adolescent girls.
Procedure: Her focus groups used groups of friends so that controversial and sometimes personally upsetting topics could be discussed with empathy and respect.
Results: She found that very negative representation of "being from Brixton" by those from outside the area was not shared by the people living there. People from Brixton found that the people who loved there were "a diverse, creative, and vibrant"community.
Evaluation: social representations may become the basis for stereotyping-both negative and positive- and how this can contribute to social identity.
Smith and Bond (1993)
Why do people act the way they do?
Dispositional Attribution: (Internal)
If we see someone cutting in line, at a movie theater,
an INTERNAL attribution would be where we think the person cut in line...
because they are SELFISH.
Because they are RUDE.
Because they are INCONSIDERATE.
Because they are a BAD PERSON.
Situational Attribution: (External)For example,
if we see someone cutting in line, at a movie theater,
an EXTERNAL attribution would be where we think the person cut in line...
because they were UNAWARE that there was a line.
Or because they were PART OF THE GROUP that was already in front of the line.
The Attribution Theory has four main points:
1. When we explain someone else's behavior, we are more likely to make an INTERNAL attribution.
2. When we explain our own behavior, we are more likely to make an EXTERNAL attribution.
3. We are more likely to explain our FAILURES, with EXTERNAL attributions.
4. We are more likely to explain our SUCCESSES, with INTERNAL attributions.
Conducted a meta-analysis of conformity studies from countries around the world. Conformity rates were highest in Fiji (58%), a collectivist culture, and lowest in Belgium (48%), an individualist culture. Shows the impact of place and time on conformity.
A multi-cultural look at Asch's conformity study
He used a variation of Asch’s conformity experiment to study whether conformity rates among the Temne in Sierra Leone in Africa and the Inuits of Baffin Island in Canada could be linked to social norms and socialization practices.
He found that the Temne, who had an agricultural economy, had high conformity levels. The culture emphasized obedience in child-rearing practices because the culture is dependent on cooperation in farming.
The Inuits are hunters and often hunt alone. They therefore need to be able to make decisions for themselves.
Child-rearing practices emphasize self-reliance because this is needed within this culture. This could perhaps explain why the Inuits tend to conform less.
Lee et al. – Audience and Game show experiment (FAE)
[A] Demonstrate the Fundamental Attributional Error (FAE).
[P] Subjects were split into groups of hosts, audiences and contestants, randomly. Hosts were asked to design there own questions.
Audiences watched the show. After the game show the audience were asked to rank the intelligence of people taken part.
[R] Audience consistently rated the hosts smarter.They failed to attribute the role to the person’s situation (random assignation of role).
Instead attributed the person’s performance to dispositional factors.
[E] Only student participants were used.
University students spend their days listening to professors – authority figures who ask questions and give answers and is a learned response rather than attribution error.
Attributing to situational or external factors (e.g. Weather)
Attributing to personal or internal factors (e.g. Intelligence)
Errors in attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error
When the role of disposition is overestimated and the affect of the situation is underestimated.
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, participant/naturalistic observation, interviews, case studies).
Leon Festinger et al. : When Prophecy Fails 1956
Allport Contact Hypothesis 1954
Aronson & Gonzales Jigsaw Classroom 1971
Asch (1951) Conformity 1951
Bandura (1961) Bobo Doll 1961
Berry (1967) Differences in conformity 1967
Cialdini Door In The Face 1975
Clark & Clark Good Doll/Bad Doll 1940
Darley & Gross Rich Girl; Poor Girl 1983
Festinger When Prophesy Fails 1956
Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive Dissonance 1959
Haslam & Reicher BBC Prison Study 2002
Hofling et al Doctor-Nurse Obedience 1966
Hofstede Cultural Dimensions 1980
Milgram Obedience to Authority 1963
Sherif Robbers Cave 1961
Tajfel et al Kandinsky or Klee 1971
Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment 1971
Lee Fundamental attribution error 1977
Taifel Social Identity theory 1979
Steele Spotlight anxiety (stereotype) 1997
Synder and Swann Stereotyping introvert and extrovert 1978
Huesmann and Eron Social Learning theory (violent TV and behaviour) 1988
Freeman and Fraser Foot in Door technique (compliance) 1966
Bond and Smith Culture affecting conformity 1996
Manson Emic approach to study depression 1985
Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande (Case Study) Evans- Pritchard1976
Discuss ethical considerations related to research methods at the social cultural level of analysis
Stanford Prison Experiment