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The Atom ASSIGNMENT

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Yuheng-2606 Rong

on 23 February 2015

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Transcript of The Atom ASSIGNMENT

Remembering (10 Marks
)
Understanding (20 Marks)
Applying (10 Marks)
Analysing (10 Marks)
Bibliography
QUESTION ONE:
LIST
THE SUBATOMIC PARTICLES THAT MAKE UP ATOMS
QUESTION TWO:
STATE
RUTHERFORD'S FAMOUS DISCOVERY ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
QUESTION THREE:
RECALL
THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ELECTRONS THAT CAN BE HELD IN THE 1ST, 2ND AND 3RD ELECTRON SHELLS
QUESTION FOUR:
NAME
THE FORCE THAT ATTRACTS THE ELECTRONS TO THE NUCLEUS
QUESTION FIVE:
STATE
THE NAME OF THE ATOMIC MODELS PROPOSED BY THE NAME BELOW
A. ERNEST RUTHERFORD
B. NIER BOHR
C. Philipp Lenard
D. Joseph John Thomson
QUESTION SIX:
DEFINE
THE TERM OF ISOTOPE
QUESTION SEVEN:
DEFINE
THE TERM OF ATOMIC NUMBER AND MASS NUMBER
QUESTION EIGHT:
EXPLAIN
WHY ELECTRON...

A. FORM A CLOUD AROUND THE NUCLEUS
B. DO NOT FALL INTO THE NUCLEUS
QUESTION NINE:
EXPLAIN
WHY AN ATOM IS ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
QUESTION TEN:
DESCRIBE
RUTHERFORD'S EXPERIMENT AND HOW IT ALLOWED HIM TO UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUTTHE STRUCTURE OF A ATOM

QUESTION ELEVEN:
EXPLAIN
WHAT THE ATOMIC NUMBER TELLS YOU ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM
QUESTION TWELVE:
IDENTIFY
THE ATOMIC SYMBOL FOR THE ISOTOPES CARBON-12, CARBON-13 AND CARBON-14 (HINT: ALL CARBON ATOMS HAVE SIX PROTONS)
QUESTION THIRTEEN:
IDENTIFY
THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF A MAGNESIUM ATOM (ATOMIC NUMBER=12)
QUESTION FOURTEEN:
COMPARE
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

Pearson Australia Curriculum Writing And Development Team. (2012) Science Pearson Textbook. 20 Thackray Road, Port Melbourne, Victoria 3207: Alicia Brown
Google cT . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.google.com.au/imghp?hl=zh-CN&tab=wi . [Accessed 21 March 2014].
The protons, neutrons and electrons are the subatomic particles that make up the atoms. The protons and neutrons formed a cluster that sits inside the nucleus, as the tiny electrons travels extremely fast outside of the nucleus in shells and this shells formed electron clouds.
The British physicist Ernest Rutherford's famous discovery is nucleus only takes up a small fraction of space inside a nucleus, because when he shot a beam of helium nuclei at a thin sheet of gold foil and most of the beam went through the gold foil, only a small fraction deflected back. So he thought the atoms has a small positively charged nucleus surround by a cloud of electrons.
The maximum number of electrons that can be held in the first electron shell is the innermost shell which only can held two electrons, second electron shell can held eight and the third electron shell can held eighteen.
The magnetism is the force that attract the electrons to the nucleus, because the proton is positively charged and the electron is negative charged. Also the electrons can not fall into the electron shell is because the electrons is trapped in the electron cloud.
The British physicist Ernest Rutherford purposed the Nuclear model on 1911, when he performed the Gold Foil experiment.
The Danish scientist Nier Bohr purposed the Planetary model on1 1913. He thought the electrons are following a path which called the Orbit and he followed Rutherford's model (the Nuclear model).
The Hungarian scientist Philipp Lenard purposed the Dynamide model on 1904. He thought the fast moving is the heavy positive particles stucked on light negative particles, which form the fast moving 'dynamides' filled over the empty space.
The British Scientist Joseph John Thomson purposed the plum pudding model on 1904 by discovered the electrons and it negative charge on 1897. However he thought there must be a source that make the atom charged neutral.
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Isotope is refers to a atom that have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons. For example, a Helium atom usually is Helium-4 so Helium-3 is a isotope, because it have the same number and different number of neutrons.
The atomic number is the number of protons that is in a nucleus. The mass number is the number of the proton and neutrons in a nucleus.
Electrons are micro and moved so fast which can hardly seen by our eyes or the microscope, so we see them as cloud.
Why do electrons not fall into the nucleus? - Chemwiki. 2014. Why do electrons not fall into the nucleus? -Chemwiki. [ONLINE] Available at http://www.chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Quantum_Mechanics/Atomic_Theory/Why_atoms_do_not_collapse . [Accessed 25th March 2014)
tHANK YOU FOR WATCHING
The electrons do not fall into the Nucleus, because the orbit are holding back the electrons as the protons are positive and the electrons are negative.
Atomic number tells me that a atom have the number of protons and electrons, so I can calculate the number of neutrons and the atom weight easily. Also the periodic table is arranged by the atomic number, like:
1
H
1
Hydrogen
4
HE
2
Helium
Atomic Number
6
Li
3
Lithium
Periodic Table
An atom is electrically neutral, because the positive charged protons have the exact the same number with the negative charged electrons and with the neutrons charged neutrally.
Rutherford's experiment is the gold foil experiment, it allowed him to understand the nucleus inside a atom only takes up tiny amount space, he understand the structure of a atom by fired a beam of alpha particles through a thin sheet of gold foil and only a small fraction of the alpha particles deflected. Before the experiment, most scientists in the scientific community believe most of the atom is completely solid.
There are two types of elements which are pure element that are made from just a single type of atom, which a molecular element is made up of small molecule.
Molecular Element ^
Element ^
A compound is made of a varieties of elements.
Compound ^
Top: Elements & Bottom: Compound ^
Google Image . 2014 . Google Image . [ONLINE] . Available at: http://www.google.com.au/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi&ei=VsZsU-v0PlbshAWazYD4Dw&ved=0CAQQqi4oAg . [Accessed 27th March 2014
The atomic symbol for the isotope carbon-12 is:
12
C
6
The atomic symbol for the isotope carbon-13 is:
13
C
6
The atomic symbol for isotope carbon-14 is:
14
C
6
QUESTION FIFTEEN:
CALCULATE
THE NUMBER OF PROTONS, NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS OF THE FOLLOWING ATOMS
A.
4
HE
2
Protons: 2
Neutrons: 2
Electrons: 2
B.
16
O
8
Protons: 8
Neutrons: 8
Electrons: 8
C.
28
Si
14
Protons: 14
Neutrons: 14
Electrons: 14
D.
207
Pb
82
Protons: 82
Neutrons: 125
Electrons: 82
E.
238
U
92
Protons: 92
Neutrons: 146
Electrons: 92
Shell One-2
Shell Two-8
Shell Three-16
Electrons
Neucleus
The electron configuration for the magnesium atom is: The first shell have two electrons, eight in the second shell and only to in the third shell.
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