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Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis In Genetics

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Shanna Shocklee

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis In Genetics

Binary Fission
Binary Fission is the asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two bodies.
In Binary Fission an organism duplicates its genetic material, or DNA and then divides into two parts (cytokinesis), with each new organism receiving one copy of DNA.
Let's look at the following animation: http://www.classzone.com/books/hs/ca/sc/bio_07/animated_biology/bio_ch05_0149_ab_fission.html
Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis In Genetics
How are Chromosomes and Inheritance Related?
Sutton discovered something important: he observed what happened when a sperm cell (with 12 chromosomes) and an egg cell (with 12 chromosomes) joined. The fertilized egg formed had 24 chromosomes the original number of grasshoppers.
As a result the grasshopper offspring has exactly the same number of chromosomes in its cells as did each of its parents.
Sutton concluded that the chromosomes carried Mendel's hereditary factors, or genes from one generation to the next.
Chromosome theory of inheritance, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.
What is Mitosis?
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
The stages of mitosis are: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis.
Let's Take a look at a description and picture of each stage.
What is Meiosis?
Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells - sperm and egg cells.
During meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.
Cell Division
Questions to Consider
What events take place during the three stages of the cell cycle?
What is the role of DNA replication?
What role do chromosomes play in inheritance?
What events occur during meiosis?
What are Chromosomes?
Chromosomes are a doubled rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
In the middle 19th century the chromosome was discovered by Walther Flemming, while he was looking at the fibers of the nucleus.
In the early 20th century Walter Sutton concluded that chromosomes carried Mendel's hereditary factors, or genes, from one generation to the next. In other words, genes are located on chromosomes.
Walther Flemming discovered the chromosome in the middle 19th century.
Walter Sutton discovered that genes are located on chromosomes
What is a Chromosome?
Picture of a Chromosome
Length of the Cell Cycle
While understanding the cell cycle and mitosis, one might ask how long it takes to do this cycle.
The answer depends on the type of cell. For example in a sea urchin takes about 2 hours and the human liver competes one cycle in about 22 hours.
The length of each stage in the cell also varies greatly from cell to cell.
Stages of Meiosis
Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Cell division and reproduction can happen in two different ways: mitosis and meiosis.
MITOSIS: is the process of cell duplication and reproduction in which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells.
MEIOSIS: is a division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.
Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis is used by single celled organisms to reproduce as well as, growth in tissues, fibers and membranes.
Meiosis is used in sexual reproduction of organisms.
Let's look at the comparison chart at the following link.
Let's take a look at the similarities and differences between the two.

Sexual Vs. Asexual Reproduction
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