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Jacob Alle

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of Softball

Simple or Compound machines used in softball
Simple or Compound machines used in softball
By. Rebecca Goins, Jacob Alley, Sydney Williams
The History of Softball
Motion in Softball
The Importance of acceleration
Example of Newton's 1st Law
Example of Newton's 2nd Law
Example of Newton's 3rd Law
The Forces
How weight and mass affect softball
The role of friction
Undesired friction
Action in which work is done in softball
The power of the action
Simple machines used in softball
Kinetic-potential energy in softball
Calories burned in softball
Earth VS. The Moon
The first softball game was on Thanksgiving Day of 1887
Some graduates were at a Yale vs. Harvard football game in Chicago. When Yale won the game, an alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard fan. The Harvard fan swung with a stick, and the rest of the group became interested. George Hancock, a reporter for the Chicago Board of Trade shouted “Play ball!” and the first softball game began with the football fans, using the boxing glove as a ball and a broom handle as a bat.
The Farragut Boat Club created their own rules and the game quickly spread throughout the rest of the Midwestern U.S.
As softball evolved over the next decade, the game was known as many names such as “indoor baseball,” “kitten baseball,” “diamond ball,” and “mush ball." However, In 1926, Walter Hakanson came up with the name “softball” at a National Recreation Congress meeting. By 1930, softball was the sport’s official name.
Softball Has Changed
In 1991, women’s fast pitch softball was added to the list of events in he 1996 Olympics.
Softball was unfortunately dropped from the 2012 Olympics.
113 countries have joined the International Softball Federation since the organization’s establishment in 1952.
In 1934, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball created a list of official rules. Until then, the game was being played without rules, player positions, and different ball sizes. The original softball was 16 inches in circumference, but Lewis Rober Sr. used a 12-inch ball. Rober’s ball became the preferred size, and softball games today are played using a 10–12-inch ball.

There is a lot of motion in the game of softball. The players are constantly in some kind of motion. Whether it is the pitcher's arm swinging around, someone running to a base, players fielding or batters swinging at the ball. For the most part, players move in straight lines, especially when running from base to base. The ball is obviously the projectile in this game, since it is hit and thrown around so often. It is also the focal point of any softball game. Without the ball, nothing can be done!
"Softball." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sep 2013. Web. 1 Oct 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softball>.
A person weighing 115 pounds will burn, on average, 276 calories after playing softball for one hour.
A person that weighs 140 pounds would burn an average of 336 calories while playing an hour of softball.
A person weighing in at 325 pounds would end up burning almost 800 calories if they played softball for one hour!
Newton's Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Newton's Second Law: the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object
One example is in the high arc of a slow softball pitch. When the ball leaves the pitchers hand, the greatest force acting on it is the player pushing and throwing the ball into the air. As soon as the ball is in the air, it comes under other constant forces that gradually overcome the initial force of the players arm. Air resistance slows the ball down and gravity begins to pull the balls towards the earth. The transfer of these forces onto the ball results in the arcing motion of a slow pitch ball. When the ball reaches the bat the force of the bat becomes the largest force and dictates the ball's new motion, out onto the field.
Newton's First Law: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

One example is when you pick up a softball and throw it, changing its motion and force, or when the ball is hit by a bat, changing the ball's direction initially dictated by the throw of the pitcher.
The impact between the ball and the bat is very violent, the bat exerts huge force on the ball causing the ball to change directions and gain speed.

There is an unbalanced force when the bat comes in contact with the ball and sends it upward, but gravity pulls it back towards Earth.
"History of Softball." Athnet. Athnet. Web. September 25. <http://www.athleticscholarships.net/history-of-softball.htm>.
Hutchison, Patrick. "Newton's Laws of Motion & Softball." Livestrong. Livestrong, 25 Apr 2012. Web. September 28 2013. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/413632-newtons-laws-motion-softball/>.
Russell, Daniel. "Forces between Bat and Ball." Physics & Acoustics of Baseball and Softball Bats. Penn State. Web. September 28, 2013. <http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/bats/impulse.htm>.
Acceleration is an important aspect of softball. The acceleration of a ball can determine the outcome of an entire game. It can determine how fast someone can get an out, by affecting how quickly someone is able to catch the ball. It also determines how fast someone can swing and hit the ball,You could calculate the acceleration of a moving ball simply by using the formula for acceleration . Subtract the initial velocity of the ball from the final velocity of the ball before it hit the glove, then divide that by the time taken to travel from the pitcher to the catcher.(V^final-V^initial/time)
Momentum is the product of an object's velocity and its mass.
(Formula: p=mv)
For example, to calculate the momentum of a softball weighing 0.15 kg that is traveling at 10 m/s you would do the following:

p= (0.15kg) (10m/s)
p= 1.5 kg-m/s
Mass relates directly to softball. The greater the mass, the more force required from a player for the ball to be able to accelerate. The mass of a ball also will affect the distance the ball will travel. If weight or mass is added and an equal amount of force is not also added, that would be a big disadvantage because the ball would not travel very far and would not be able to accelerate.
Friction is common in softball in the form of curveballs. Curveballs occur when a pitcher releases the ball and their grip was unable to put a heavy enough spin on it. The less amount of spin on the ball, the more air resistance it will encounter, slowing it down more in return.
Friction is wanted under no circumstances on the surface of the field and in certain pitches in softball, such as a "Four-Seam Fastball, knuckleball, and a Two-Seam Fastball". Every player wants a pitch to be as smooth and as fast as possible, with as little air resistance as possible.
A softball bat is a simple machine. It is classified as a third class lever. The only difference between the classes of levers is the location of the fulcrum (pivet point).

On a third class lever, the fulcrum is on the end of one side, the effort force (amount of force needed to move a load) is in the middle, and the resistance force (force that the effort force must overcome to do work on an object through a simple machine) is at the the top.

The difference in gravity on Earth vs. the Moon, The Moon's gravity would be too great to be able to play a game of softball successfully. No one would be able to run fast enough to get from base to base in a timely manner. The pitched ball would take forever to arrive at the plate. It also would be really hard to hit because all of the power in your swing comes from your hips, without gravity your feet would not be stationary, which means there would be very little or no power in your swing When the softball is hit it would fall to the surface differently because of the difference in gravity - this difference affects acceleration as well!
Potential Energy is stored energy (Winding a watch, pulling back on a bow)
Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion
A great example of Potential energy being converted to Kinetic energy is when a player finally pitches the softball after swinging their arm around, storing up energy for the pitch.
Another great example is hitting the softball after storing energy by becoming tense and swinging the bat back.
Improvement of performance for runners and Fielders

Traction- is drawing or pulling a thing over a surface.
Players can improve their batting performance by using composite bats. Composite bats are lighter, their sweet spots are bigger, which means the ball goes farther easier.
Bat weights help strengthen and quicken your swing.
Metal cleats will help the runner create traction which helps you to run faster. It will also help outfielders not slip and slide round in the field.
A genuine leather fast pitch glove will help with fielding because it is aerodynamic and has a ramp like web so its easier to scoop up a ground ball. Also the padding in the glove acts like a mechanical advantage in away to line drives, it's resistant to the force of the thrown or hit ball.
Mechanical Advantage-A ratio of the load or resistance to the effort or force.
An example of action which allows work to be done is when the bat is swinging and the ball is coming towards it at the same time. The bat swings towards the ball, causing the ball to travel in the direction the bat was swung. Once the bat makes contact with the ball, it lets the players run from base to base or lets other players get an out.
More Sources
"Levers." ThinkQuest. Oracle. Web. Oct 1 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0210120/lever.html>.
"The Curveball." The Physics of Baseball. Oracle. Web. October 1 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/11902/physics/curve1.html>.
Mermson, Serm. "Science Project: The Effect of Mass on the Distance a Ball Travels." synonym. Synonym. Web. September 24. <http://classroom.synonym.com/science-project-effect-mass-distance-ball-travels-2550.html>.
During the fast pitch rotation at the start of the pitch, the arm with the ball is slightly bent at the elbow which is an example of 'lever arm"
Also during the change-up pitch rotation the wrist is slight bent and the fingers are at a circular form.
Improvement of performance for Batting
Improvement of performance for pitching
Another example of an action that lets work be done is pitching the ball to the batter that is up. Throwing the ball towards the bat causes the player to swing the bat in the direction the ball is traveling. Then the bat is swung in the opposite direction, making contact with the ball and causing it to travel towards outfield.
For example, if a player swings a bat with 10 joules of energy over a period of 2 seconds, the power would be 5 watts. (5W)
As a second example, if a pitcher throws the ball with 15 joules of energy over 6 seconds, the power of the pitch would be 2.5 watts. (2.5W)
Knee savers are special pads filled with foam that are attach to the straps of the shin guard, which allows cushion for the catcher when they are in the squatting position. Knee savers provide support for the knee ligaments which stretch or tear over time and the cartilage in the knee which wears down to nothing or becomes thin.
softball field dimensions (positions)
Softball field measurement
One way you can improve your pitching performance is practice pitching with a weighted ball
Do pitching warm ups before you pitch.
Also after every game you pitch ice your pitching arm, which keeps it from being sore, during a game if its cold try to keep your arm as warm as possible and stretch thoroughly.
One example is when you catch the ball. As the ball enters the glove and contacts the leather, it stops. Then your hand exhibits a force that is equal to that which the ball conveys on the glove. So the force you exhibit is equal and opposite to the motion of the ball. This results in the ball stopping.
Another example is when the batter is hit by a pitched ball, the pitched ball exerts all of it's force on the stationary batter, which then stops the motion of the softball, because the force of the pitched ball is opposite of the stationary batter.
Desirable friction
Friction is desired in many ways in softball, one way is when the base-runner is sliding or diving into a base, also when the fielder is diving for softball that is in play.
Another way friction is desired is when the batter is batting, the batters motion is the hips twisting and their back foot is twisting in a circular motion.
softball field measurements
measurement of the gear
Pitching speeds
part of the body used to pitch
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