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1. What difficulties did the ilustrados encounter in their aspiration to form the Philippines a nation?
What is an Ilustrado?
The Ilustrados(Spanish for "erudite,” "learned,"or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century.
They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals.
The Ilustrado class was composed of native-born intellectuals and cut across ethnolinguistic and racial lines—Indios,Insulares, and mestizos, among others—and sought reform through “a more equitable arrangement of both political and economic power” under Spanish tutelage.
Who were the Ilustrados in the Philippines?
The most prominent Ilustrados were
Graciano López Jaena
Marcelo H. del Pilar
José Rizal (the Philippine national hero.)
Antonio Luna de San Pedro y Novicio-Ancheta (He was regarded as the most brilliant of the Filipino military officers during the war.)After the existence of the Katipunan was leaked in, the he and his brothers were arrested and jailed in Fort Santiago for "participating" in the revolution.
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Graciano López Jaena (Journalist, orator, and revolutionary from Iloilo)He got into trouble for refusing to testify that certain prisoners died of natural causes when it was obvious that they had died at the hands of the mayor of Pototan. López Jaena continued to agitate for justice and finally went to Spain when threats were made on his life.
Marcelo del Pilar
Father of Free masonry
Marcelo H. del Pilar (editor and co-publisher of La Solidaridad).On October 28, 1888, fleeing from clerical persecution, del Pilar went to Spain, leaving his family behind because he organized anti-friar demonstrations, culminating in a petition signed by 800 people for the expulsion of friars in the Philippines and exile of the Archbishop.
Del Pilar's struggle increased when the money to support La Solidaridad were ignored and there were no sign of immediate response from the Spanish colonial government. He rejected the assimilationist stand and began planning an armed revolt.
Mariano Ponce (Physician, writer, and active member of the Propaganda Movement)
Ponce was imprisoned when the revolution broke out on August of 1896 and was imprisoned for forty eight hours before being released. Fearing another arrest, he fled to France and later went to Hong Kong.
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL HERO
A li'l History
In the beginning, Rizal and his fellow Ilustrados preferred not to win independence from Spain, instead they yearned legal equality for both Peninsulares and natives—Indios, Insulares, and mestizos, among others—in the [[co and economic reforms demanded by the Ilustrados were that “the Philippines be represented in the Cortes and be considered as a province of Spain” and “the secularization of the parishes.”
However, in 1872, nationalist sentiment grew strongest, when three Filipino priests, “charged with leading a military mutiny at anarsenal in Cavite, near Manila”, were executed by the Spanish authorities. The event and “other repressive acts outraitings and activities, Rizal was executed on December 30, 1896.
His execution propelled the Ilustrados . This also prompted unity among the Ilustrados and Andrés Bonifacio’s radical Katipunan. Philippine policies by the United States reinforced the dominant position of the Ilustrados within Filipino society. Friar estates were sold to the Ilustrados and most government positions were offered to them.
The events of 1872 however invited the other colored section of the Ilustrados (English: Intellectually Enlightened Class), the growing middle-class natives, to at least do something to preserve the Creole ideals.
This massive propaganda upheaval from 1872 to 1892 is now known as the Second Propaganda Movement. Through their writings and orations, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Graciano López Jaena and José Rizal sounded the trumpets of Filipino nationalism and brought it to the level of the masses.
The propagandists mainly aimed for representation of the Philippines in the Cortes Generales, secularization of the clergy, legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality, among others. Their main work was the newspaper called La Solidaridad
It rode the increasing anti-Spanish (anti-Peninsulares) sentiments in the islands and pushed the people towards revolution, rather than discourage them that a revolution was not the solution for independence.
2. What is the value of Philippine History in the
formation of a nation?
Some Filipinos are suffering from national amnesia. Colonial mentality is deeply rooted in those who are not proud of being a Filipino and in those who look at anything foreign as best. Thus, colonial mentality destroys our national identity.
Therefore, the value of Philippine history is very essential in forming a nation, because citizens themselves within that nation should know where they come from, and through learning it must be strengthened especially by the academe, so that we can produce a new breed of Filipinos who have a strong sense of NATIONALISM in their hearts and minds.
As a result, whatever the mistakes in the past are, the present generation may not repeat it and the future generation would be freed from the bondage of tyranny and slavery.
Why did Rizal find it necessary to rewrite the Philippine History? What did he do to correct errors committed by early historians?
Rizal had a burning desire to know exactly the conditions of the Philippines when the Spaniards came ashore to the islands. His theory was, the country is economically self-sufficient and prosperous.
Rizal entertained the idea that it had a lively and vigorous community enriched with the collective and sensitive art and culture of the native population. He believed the conquest of the Spaniards contributed in part to the decline of the Philippine's rich tradition and culture.
In order to support this argument, he had to find out a credible account of the Philippines before and at the initial Spanish encounter.
According to Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, the noted Filipinologist, and Rizal's friend, the Spanish historian Dr. Antonio Morga wrote Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas which was published in Mexico in 1609.
Many scholars considered this history of the Philippines a much better and honest description of the conditions in the country pertaining to the Spanish conquest. Rizal proceeded to annotate every chapter of the Sucesos. It's a highly interesting and informative volume.
Rizal designed this volume, with his commentary, to destroy the myth that art and science had not pre-dated Spanish influence in the Philippines.
It documented native language culture and promoted the re-establishment of a Filipino national identity based on industry, trade, and craftsmanship.
The book began to circulate widely in the Philippines, which alarmed the authorities because of its nationalist polemics.
Rizal annotations to Morga:
Morga commented on every statement that could be nuanced in Filipino cultural practices. For example, on page 248 Morga describes the culinary art of the ancient Filipinos by recording:
..."They prefer to eat salt fish which begin to decompose and smell."
Rizal's footnotes reads:
This is another preoccupation of the Spaniards who, like any other nation in the matter of food, loathe that to which they are not accustomed or is unknown to them...... The fish that Morga mentions does not taste better when it is beginning to rot; all on the contrary: it is bagoong, and all those who have eaten it and tasted it know that it is not or ought not to be rotten.
3. Connect Rizal’s membership in any Sociological, Anthropological, Ethnographic and Historical organizations in his attempt to establish linkages and to elevate the Indios’ lowly status before Spain and the world
Jose Rizal lived in Europe at a time when sociology, the scientific study of society, was just beginning to be formalized. It is interesting that he did not seem to have made the acquaintance of this new discipline. His rich insights into the mechanisms and consequences of colonial society could have been framed better with the aid of sociological concepts. But, more important, they would have added a vital area to the new science of society. That field, so sadly missing in modern sociology, would have focused on the circumstances and self-understanding of subjugated peoples.
Rizal was a methodical observer of his own society. This capacity for observation was sharpened even more by his experience as an expatriate Filipino. Not only did living in Europe equip him with a modern liberal sensibility, it also gave him the necessary distance from which he could ponder the problems of his country. The life of an exile distilled his sense of nation.
During the late 19th century, studying the field of ophthalmology was a separate specialty even if there are no organized residency programs. During this period, most trainings are done through the guidance of a well-renounced professor. One of the very reason why Jose Rizal was stimulated to study ophthalmology simply because of Dona Theodora’s falling eyesight and his own desire to help her.
For the first time, he was taught under the famous French ophthalmologist, Louis de Wecker. Even if de Wecker did not held any academic position, he is still known as being a prolific author and active teacher at the same time. De Wecker introduced advanced ocular surgery and ophthalmoscopy into France. He was able to modified cataract and sclerotomy.
In 1887, on his way to Dr. de Wecker’s clinic, Rizal took time to travel Europe and visit other prominent optalmologist and scientists. Among them he visited in Vienna Ernst Fuchs, a well recognized ophthalmologist. Rudolph Virchow, known widely as the father of pathology, invited him to be a part of the Berlin Anthropological Society.