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Transcript of Building Knowledge
allowing in little light elaborate, imposing, geometric style, columns, arches simple, elegant, balanced, proportional, humanistic The Italian Medici Palace
■ Brunelleschi's Dome of Florence The Parthenon Serious, theatrical, heroic, dramatic, full of expressions Royal Scottish Academy Building Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons Louvre Howard Castle Fall of Phaeton Young Centaur Statue (Musei Capitolini) ■Pont du Gard Aqueducts: The invention of the arch: Abbey-Church of Saint-Philbert-de-Grand-Lieu Amiens Cathedral flying buttress pointed arch rose window spire stained glass rounded arch thick heavy columns Ionic columns ceiling fresco's re-introduction of Greek architecture rounded arch S W I S C H ecularism ealth dividualism tudies lassicism umanism C Palace of Versailles made with google sketchup based on human proportions the Parthenon was made without straight lines or right angles entasis columns aren't perpendicular to floor bowed stylobate and architrave (top step and roof) Optical Illusions/Refinements
to achieve visual perfection made for Anthena the goddess of war and wisdom gargoyle human proportions on a godly scale H humanistic decorated with art that glorified the human body S religion wasn't the only thing W the Palace was about 20 mil. dollars and was used to show off the Medici wealth emotional An Allegory with Venus and Cupid light/pastel colors, curves, graceful The Swing reduced materials needed to build aqueducts allowed Romans to build over rivers The invention of concrete: sped up building process made building easier 1st dome since Rome- though couldn't build the way Romans had Brunelleschi had to build a dome within a dome because there wasn't enough lumber to construct support wooden structure used to support shape Who built the Parthenon and why? Pericles built the Parthenon using money from the Delian League treasury 1 of his 3 goals gave him the reason to build it 1) Strengthen Athenian Democracy 2) Hold and strengthen the Empire 3) Glorify Athens } all led to Athens' Golden Age Began after Alexander the Great and before the beginning of Rome Greek-Like Alexander's Empire led to the spread of Greek ideas- Hellenic ideas meshed with other influences to create a Hellenistic culture < Alexander's Empire How its Made: Romans used many tools to make accurate and precise measurements The 2 main ones were the groma and the dioptra Groma and Dioptra Project By: Steven Carpenter, Tiffany Makovic, and Alex Schnider A - sights
B - screw for adjusting the angle
C - screw for adjusting the direction a surveying device- to make route as straight as possible
rod with a sight at both ends attached to a stand
measured angles, fitted with protractors for precise measurements
Screw turns several different parts of the instrument made it easy to calibrate for very precise measurements
used extensively on aqueduct building projects
Greek astronomers used to measure positions of stars
a more accurate version of the Groma
replaced as a surveying instrument by Theodolite
Heron’s dioptra- wrote about use and construction of device Dioptra Alex’s Construction Groma Alex’s Sketch used to survey straight lines
vertical staff with horizontal wooden cross at right-angles on a bracket,
four plumed lines hung from all ends at equal length (corniculi)
fifth plumbed line (longer than others) in center established the datum point
plum bobs (pondera) made sure groma was perpendicular to the ground
pivoted at middle
surveying instrument originated from Mesopotamia
brought to Rome by the Etruscans Groma Steven’s Construction Dioptra Tiffany’s Sketch Steven’s Sketches Dioptra Alex’s Construction Tiffany’s Sketch Groma The Romans used 2 major tools to make their measurements precise and accurate Tiffany's Sketchup Drawing Tiffany's Sketch Gothic = "Barbaric" evolution of Romanesque (the inside) Thin walls Ribbed Vaulting Brunelleschi originally a sculptor entered in a competition to make eastern baptistry doors Ghiberti won Brunelleschi's Entry Brunelleschi quit sculpting and took up architecture- he wanted to be the best His friends Masaccio and Donetello The Holy Trinity Helped Masaccio apply linear perspective- 1st artist to apply this 1st freestanding nude since Rome Though Michelangelo contributed greatly to the Reniassance; he also influenced the beginning of mannerism disfigured/ twisted bodies emotional Combination of Christian and mythical ideas (Jesus in the form of Apollo) The Last Judgement Clashing colors twisted bodies not proportional Didn't begin as a result of kings patronizing powerful pieces of art powerful art became more popular- the demand went up so as a result so did the production churches needed art that conveyed messages for those that were illiterate influenced by Italian (renaissance and mannerism) and Flemish Styles created for the Sun King; Louis XIV he had similar goals to Cardinal Richelieu: 1) Ruin the Huguenots 2) Bring down the nobility 3) Elevate his name tried to do this by making them pay tax; couldn't- was their privilege had the Palace of Versailles made; trapped the nobles in paradise revoked the Edict of Nantes- 150 cities no longer were allowed to practice their own religion he became the Sun King- one that radiates warmth; everything revolves around him Less popular; didn't care as much about European architectural advancements more secular and classical appealed to emotions vs. intellect exaggerated decoration (Churrigueresque) went against classicism balance of space and light gave a dramatic appearance Hotel de Soubise (late Baroque) mostly interior; asymmetry, ornate furniture, gold, shell-like curves, lighthearted themes, more secular than baroque opposed baroque and rococo periods- symmetrical and simplistic used as waterspouts to keep rainwater from eroding the cathedral used to support pointed arches allowed in colorful light that made the interior seem more "heavenly;" some told stories from the bible closer to heaven and a display of power allows in light, decorative more effective at supporting its own weight than rounded arches the result of pointed arches and ribbed vaulting allowed to build higher and gave more support to roof built supports for dome similar to supports for arches