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Diversity Applied to the Leader Role in Nursing

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Krista Buckler

on 4 November 2013

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Transcript of Diversity Applied to the Leader Role in Nursing

Diversity Applied to the Leader Role in Nursing
Ethnic Diversity in Leadership
Language Diversity in Leadership
Younger versus Older Leaders in Nursing
Male versus Female Leaders in Nursing
Strengths and Weaknesses
advancement opportunities
"glass elevator"
features of management linked to men's culture
direct, levelheaded communication
more technical
nurturing, caring nature
features of nursing care linked to women's culture
innovative considerations
"glass ceiling"
roundabout communication
lack of calmness/self control
Effects on Staff
direct communication style, desired
called upon for certain tasks
cast into leadership roles
understanding of women's problems
easy to approach
take strict & unpleasant decisions easier
roundabout communication style
Effects on Patients
Stereotypes still exist in the outside world
Female patients want female nurse
Male patients want male in charge
Female nurses more relation-oriented
Male nurses more technical, natural aura of authority
Budget Concerns of Male and Female Leaders
Average salary for men is higher than that of women
Interrupted employment owing to childbearing for female leaders
Men may aspire to higher positions than women
Formal policies may prevent men from being hired for certain jobs

Strengths and Weaknesses
education in leadership
more young, male nurse leaders
adapt to new technology
ambitious>>but could lead to incomprehension
less nursing experience
less likely to participate in CPD
lack of focus
more experience
less tolerant of mediocrity and poor performance
possibly more honest
less turnover
higher level of focus
lower level of education
slower with new technology
preparing for retirement
possible negative cognitive effects
Effects on Staff
Younger nurses entering field
Older nurses retiring
Younger nurses starting families
"My way" attitude vs "New way" attitude
Different shift preference
Budget Concerns
Leaders who had a baccalaureate degree had a higher salary than those with an associate’s degree or less
Older nurses spend need more time to learn new skills, complete training
Older nurses are preparing for retirement
Young nurses are starting families/need vacation time, specific hours for family, etc.

Effects on Patients
Strengths and Weaknesses
Effects on Staff
Effects on Patients
Budget concerns of language diversity
Nursing leaders have the responsibility of staff under them
Stressful environment
Not having available resources
Hindered care
Patient feels inferior
Vulnerable position
Not understanding
Unilingual nurses cannot communicate adequately
No strengths to being unilingual
Bilingual nurse: communicate and assist with Hispanic patients
Unilingual nurse: using appropriate resources
Bilingual nurse being pulled into different directions
Communication barriers
Cultural wishes of patients not met
Hard to build rapport/trust
Takes more time
Communication barrier
The Term "Ethnic"
“Relating to races or large groups of people who have the same customs, religion, origin, etc. or being associated with or belonging to a particular race or group of people who have culture that is different from the main culture of a country” (Merriam-Webster’s, 2011).

Culture & Diversity
“The learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and life ways of a particular group that guides thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways” (Leininger, 1991, p. 39).

“The condition of having or being composed of different elements…the inclusion of different types of people (as people of different races or cultures) in a group or organization” (Merriam-Webster’s, 2011).

Ethnicity & Nursing Care
Diversity is not a new concept

Understanding of disparities

2004 Study (Cortis)

Challenging issue

Bridging the gap

How well does IPFW educate students about disparities?

Impact of Ethnicity on Nurses
Success of the organization

Embracing diversity
Impact of diversity
Can diversity be problematic?
Impact of Ethnicity on Patients
Confront the past to better our future

Reality exercise

My goal



• Founder: Madeleine Leininger graduate of St. Anthony’s School of Nursing- diploma program 1950s BS Biological Science & minor in Philosophy
• 1st nursing professional to receive PhD in cultural and social anthropology
• Motivation for development of theory
o Staff showed lack of understanding of cultural factors which influence behavior

• Theory focuses on nurse-patient relationships “ Stranger to trusted friend enabler”
o Process where the individuals build a profound relationship, where differences are acknowledged, valued, and respected
o Purpose “…to discover ways to provide culturally congruent care to people of different or similar cultures in order to maintain or regain their well-being or face death in a culturally appropriate way” (Leininger, 1991, p. 39)
o Goal: “To improve and provide care which is culturally acceptable and beneficial…” (Leininger, 1991, p.39).
• Future for culture care theory research
o Critical analysis of ethical issues in nursing education (American nursing textbooks in other countries)

Be the Change you Want to See in the World!
Paying intepretors or staff members more
Having appropriate resources available
Level of confidence/trust patients have with nurses
Does experience matter?
Does friendliness matter?
My observations
Andrews, D. (2003). Lessons from the past: Confronting past discriminatory practices to alleviate the nursing shortage through increased professional diversity. Journal of Professional Nursing, 19 (5): 289-294.

Calvillo, E., Clark, L., Ballantyne, J., Pacquiao, D., Purnell, L., & Villarruel, A. (2009). Cultural competency in baccalaureate nursing education. Journal Of Transcultural Nursing, 20(2), 137-145.

Diversity. 2011. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/ddictionary/diversity

Ethnic. 2011. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www. merriam-webster.com/ddctionary/ethnic

Hicks, D. (2012). Cultural Competence and the Hispanic Population. MEDSURG Nursing, 21(5), 314-315

Leininger,M.M. (1991). Culture care diversity and universality: A theory of nursing. New York: National League of Nursing Press.

Lowe, J., Archibald,C. (2009). Cultural diversity: The intention of nursing. Nursing Forum, 44 (1), 11-8.

McMurry, T. (2011). The Image of Male Nurses and Nursing Leadership Mobility. Nursing Forum, 46(1), 22-28.

M. Phegley, personal communication, October 9, 2013.

Nilsson, K., & Larsson, U. (2005). Conceptions of gender -- a study of female and male head nurses' statements. Journal Of Nursing Management, 13(2), 179-186.

Pabon, S., & Wisotzkey, S. (2013). Evidence-based nursing. ¿Hablas Inglés? Language barriers in healthcare. Nursing Management, 44(8), 19-24

Pool, I., Poell, R., & Cate, O. (2013). Nurses' and managers' perceptions of continuing professional development for older and younger nurses: A focus group study. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 50(1), 34-43.

Saccomano, S. J., & Pinto-Zipp, G. (2011). Registered nurse leadership style and confidence in delegation. Journal Of Nursing Management, 19(4), 522-533.

Swinney, J., & Dobal, M. (2008). Embracing the challenge: increasing workforce diversity in nursing. Hispanic Health Care International, 6(4), 200-204.

Toofany, S. (2007). Minority ethnic groups’ experiences and expectations of nursing in primary care. Primary Health Care, 17 (2), 39-42.

Tsaloukidis, N. h., Trifoni, R., Ouzounis, D., Papageorgiou, D. E., Marvaki, C., & Peponi, M. (2012). Head nurse perceptions of their managerial leadership behaviours: a pilot study. Health Science Journal, 6(2), 290-299.

Westphal, J. A. (2012). Characteristics of nurse leaders in hospitals in the USA from 1992 to 2008. Journal Of Nursing Management, 20(7), 928-937.

Wolff, A., Ratner, P., Robinson, S, Oliffe, J., & Hall, L.. (2010). Beyond generational differences s: A literature review of the impact of relational diversity on nurses’ attitudes and work. Journal of Nursing Management, 18 (8), 948-969.
Culture Care Theory
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