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The Protestant Reformation

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Christina Morinello

on 15 December 2010

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Transcript of The Protestant Reformation

• Lived a monastic lifestyle and became a priest under the catholic church with a doctorate in theology

•His calling came through while studying Paul’s Letter to the Romans
Sharly Chan & Christina Morinello The Protestant Reformation
1500-1700 What is the Protestant Reformation? • The Protestant Reformation is a religious movement which started as an attempt to rebel against the Catholic Church

•Through the sixteenth century, it ended up in the establishment of Protestant churches, including several branches such as Lutheranism, Calvinism, Methodism Causes of the Reformation • There are different branches of Christianity, but their followers are all pilgrims on a journey on earth to their place in heaven

•As a result, many Christian reformers lead their own path to the “Promised Land,” thus starting the Protestant Reformation Promoted critical thinking and questioning which influenced the papacy to focus on human achievements and secularism instead of spirituality

School of Athens
Raffaello Sanzio 1. Renaissance Era 2. Abuses of the Church Abuse of indulgences and corrupt popes who ignored their people’s cry for reformation made the people rebel and reform 3. Emotionalism and superstition The last judgment brought people fear for their safety and their salvation from God

People turned to saints and bizarre measures

<- Michelangelo's The Last Judgement 4. Nationalism Made the papacy lose power

Princes and kings took over their control as they didn't like the control the papacy had over their subjects

Moreover, the papacy taxed their subjects and the money only fuelled Rome's economy 5. Strong personalities Were charismatic, intelligent and strong

They overthrew the church before they could respond with their reformed ideas Martin Luther (1483-1546) Ulrich Zwingli King Henry VIII Lutherans Baptists Methodists Catholic Counter-Rebellion Radical Protestants The Council of Trent Today He concluded that only faith in God on earth will lead to salvation in heaven

Infatuation with materialism disgusted Luther, even the act of charity

Luther published his book 95 Theses on October 31, 1517,in protest to present teachings- the start of Protestant Reformation The Church was slow to respond, but they placed him in exile for preaching false belief

Once released, his disciple Philip Melanchthon created the creed of Lutheranism, titled "Augsburg Confession" (1530) Major Leaders of the Reformation Zwingli was a priest who became involved in the Protestant Reform
He set up a reform Protestantism in Zurich, Switzerland which encouraged democratic rule over the Church
Unlike Luther, Zwingli used force to preach-- he abolished several Catholic icons like the eucharist, and removed the act of fasting and church music.
After his death, his impact on Protestantism is still influencing Swiss religious practices today John Calvin Calivin wrote the most important piece of literature of the entire Reformation, titled "Institutes of the Christian Religion" while studying theology in Switzerland Best known for his article on predestination (Heaven or Hell is decided before you're born)

He created a strict civil government called theocracy, which was controlled by the Church

Many followed Calvinism, but John Knox branched further by beginning Presbyterianism, (everyone is a priest, thus making no need for a separate clergy) It implied that sacraments were useless, and did not help with achieving salvation with God

He preached about how scripture is the primary and most important tool of Catholicism Henry's other Daughter Elizabeth I combined Calvinist, Lutheran and Catholic beliefs to create Anglicanism, becoming the official religious practice of England After being unable to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn- he wanted to reform

He wanted to make himself head of the church in England, taking on Catholic teaching. Anyone who stepped in his path would face penalties

He wrote his creed of allegiance "Act of Supremacy," to make him head of the English church, those who denied the oath were soon beheaded After his death, his daughter Mary Tudor tried to bring Catholicism back but did it violently, executing over 200 Protestants and earning herself the name "Bloody Mary." · Follows the 95 Theses to focus only on faith in God
· Materialism is frowned upon- not a way to earn a placement in heaven
· Believe in individual interpretation of Scripture, and accepts the sacraments of Baptism and Communion · Consubstantiation: the body and blood of Christ are symbolized through bread and wine

· Denies saints, holy days and fasting as they are a distraction to faith in God other · Baptists were another branch of the Protestant Reformation.
· The differences between churches vary, because they do not have a central governing authority to set ground rules (separation of the Church and state is also practiced.)
· Instead of baptizing after birth, the sacrament is performed through immersion during adulthood.
· There is biblical authority, and like Calvinism and Lutheranism, only the sacraments of baptism and communion are pursued. Methodism was founded by John Wesley in England in the early 1700s (post Protestant Reformation)
Methodists follow sacraments of Baptism and Communion
They differ in that they receive salvation through kind acts on earth, along with faith in God 1) Anabaptism
2) Pietism
3) Puritanism 4) Congregationalism
5) Adventism
6) Pentecostalism The Catholic chuch did not like the Protestant Reformation in Europe

The Society of Jesus, founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to bring awareness to the fight against the Protestants

The Jesuits, as they were called, engaged in preaching, spreading the Catholic faith as far as the Middle East

By 1749, the Jesuits founded and established over 800 schools in attempt to convert many back to Catholicism · Radical Protestants described the other branches that strayed from Catholicism, but were not under the Protestant Reformation

· Groups like Anabaptists were the source of many radical sects, like the Amish and Quaker faiths, whose lifestyles were more strict. · Catholic Counter-Rebellion was progressing slower than anticipated, thus the Council of Trent promoted ecumenism

· They tried to explain clearly the Catholic belief and what types of beliefs the Protestants were violating

· Major impacts included a blend of doctrinal and disciplinary approaches

· The Council of Trent lasted for 400 years until the formation of Vatican II in 1962 Doctrinal Approaches 1) The authority of the papacy
2) Scripture with tradition are expressions of revelation
3) Salvation is found through faith and goodness
4) Jesus is present in the bread and wine
5) Priests have the holy order to lead the mass
6) Reconciliation is the normal way to forgive sins
7) There are seven sacrements
8) Purgatory exists
Since the Protestant Reformation, the popes have been in-line and contributed to the Catholic Counter-Rebellion with success (Pope Pius V)
Pope Pius V published the Roman Catechism (Summary of catholic beliefs)
Pope Gregory XIII reorganized the standard calendar which is still known today as the Gregorian Calendar
Consistent attempts to regain unity of the Catholic Church was not an entire success, but resulted in a variety of Christian branches in present time, including that of Catholicism. Disciplinary Approaches 1) Church abuses were corrected

2) Training priests to preach God's word

3) Censorship on literature (Index of banned authors included Jean- Jacques Rousseau objector Protestant Reformation theocracy Predestination Predestination Ecumenism True or False Multiple Choice 6. All Christians are said to be pilgrims on a journey on earth to their place in heaven

7. The Renaissance Era is NOT a cause of the Protestant Reformation

8. The Renaissance Era did NOT promote critical thinking and questioning

9. Nationalism made papacy lose power as princes and kings took over their control

10. Martin Luther lived a monastic lifestyle 2. The Creed of Lutheranism is called

a. The 95 Theses

b. The Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

c. The Augsburg Confession

d. The Rights of Man 3. Henry was interested in reformation because

a. The Pope was taxing his people and the money only went towards Rome

b. He could not divorce his wife

c. He wanted to be more powerful

d. All of the above 4. Methodism was founded by

a. John Methodist

b. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

c. John Wesley

d. Philip Melanchthon 1. Calvinism believes in which two sacraments?

a. Baptism and Eucharist

b. Baptism and Confirmation

c. Eucharist and Marriage

d. Anointing of the Sick and Marriage 5. The council of Trent used ______ to reform Catholicism

a. Doctrinal approaches

b. Punishment

c. Disciplinary approaches

d. both A and C
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