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malaria by aser

malaria by aser

Mando Gamal

on 7 April 2013

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Transcript of malaria by aser

Malaria what's malaria Malaria is an infectious disease Plasmodium caused by a parasite five common species that cause malaria Plasmodium falciparum the most common type Plasmodium falciparum
plasmodium knowlesi
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium ovale transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes 4- Geographical distribution of malaria infection overall the world Afria (Sub-Saharan) Asia (As Indonesia and india Latin America sign and symptoms of malaria complication of malaria Adult Child Pregnant women Brain infection (Cerebritis)
Kidney failure
Liver failure
Meningitis prematurity, abortion, and stillbirth Treatment old treatment new treatment Modified old Treatment prophylaxis Hepatic tissue schizonticides Gameto schizonticides Blood schizonticides combination of drugs which act on both (Erythrocytic and Exocytic) stage prevent development of malaria Primaquine(8-Aminoquinolone) It's recommended to be combined with (Chloroquine) to eradicate the (Erythrocytic) stages of malaria Prevention of transmission Agents kill sexual forms of plasmodia (Gametocytes) in blood Destroy (Erythrocytic stages) Divided into 2 categories Quinolinemethanol 4-Aminoquinolones the first synthetic Mefloquine
(Lariam) blocking site of metabolism in quinine (C2) with the chemically stable (CF3) group which is site of (Hydroxylation) Anti-folate drugs 2- Type 2 inhibitor They interfere with folic acid synthesis Sulfonamides They divided into 3 categories Biguanides Artemisinins Diaminopyrimidines prodrugs Activated by metabolism into (Dihydrotriazines) Pyrimethamine Trimethoprim blood schizonticide Combination of this group with (Sulfonamides) produce supra-addition effects due to inhibition of two steps in the same metabolic pathway Endoperoxide bridge Responsible for the activity production of free radicals which result in damage of parasitic membrane Nitd 609 RST.s synthetic antimalarial drug related to (Spiroindolone) a protein-synthesis inhibitor drug it causes mutation in the gene encoding the (P-type) action transporter (ATPase 4)(PfA TP4) 1- Act rapidly
2- Act in different ways
3- Quite potent (Small dose goes a long time)
4- Can be given orally
5- Taken once daily instead of other drugs which may reach to (4 times) daily for (7 days)
Advantages vaccine which was engineered using genes from (outer protein) of (P.falciparum and protein of hepatitis B) safe vaccine with well tolerated, immunogenic and potentially confer partial efficacy
References 1- http://www.medicinenet.com/malaria
2- http://www.who.int/topics/malaria
3- www.google.pics
4- http://www.FDA.org /malaria
Thanks 1-Type 1 inhibitor
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