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Dante's Inferno

Dante's 9 Circles of Hell
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Stephanie Shamy

on 17 December 2014

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Transcript of Dante's Inferno

7th Circle of Hell
Vestibule
Dante's Inferno
Circle 3
Sin-
Gluttony

Punishment-
The sinners are forced to lie in vile slush produced by never-ending repugnant, icy rain.

Who-
The guard is Cerberus (three-headed dog of the Underworld). A Florentine contemporary, Ciacco, is also mentioned. His name translates to "hog" and "pig".

Contrapasso-
"The surrender to sin which began with mutual indulgence leads to an imperceptible degradation to solitary self-indulgence."




Cerberus- three-headed guard dog of the Underworld.
Ciacco- Conversed with Dante regarding strife in Florence between the Black and White Guelphs. Ciacco predicts the expulsion of the White Party, which Dante belonged to.
Circle 3 consists of those who have overindulged or over consumed. This encompasses many addictions. Amy Winehouse was addicted to alcohol, and this would subsequently lead to an early death.
Analysis-Part I
Circle 2
Many allusions to different events and people are seen in this canto. First, Cerberus, the three-headed dog of the Underworld is listed as the watchdog. This is significant because he was known to devour people when they approached hell. However, when Dante entered and threw dirt into Cerberus' mouth, the dog easily left his position because as a glutton, his appetite overtakes him. Secondly, a prophesy is seen as Ciacco predicts that the White Guelphs will be crushed by the Black Guelphs, leading them into exile. Dante was a part of this group. This did actually occur in 1302, which is after the date the poem is set but before the date the poem is written.
Analysis- Part II
Very little information is known as Ciacco. He is important, however, because he is representative of Florentine culture. Benvenuto, a commentator, remarked that the Florentines were known for their traditionally temperate attitude toward food and drink- but when "they fell, they fell hard and surpassed all others in their gluttony."
Analysis-Part III
Overall, this canto symbolizes the sin of gluttony. The gluttons are forced to lie in vile slush because they have degraded themselves to this level; they are also unable to see anyone around them because their sin requires selfishness. By lying in this slush, they are now stuck self indulging in this environment all by their lonesome.
Sin:
Lust, Carnal sins betrayed reason to their appetities

Guardian:
Minos- dead and semi-bestial judge of the damned, assigns souls to different levels of hell with his tail the number of times it wraps around his body denotes the circle of hell

Punishment:
Abandon themselves to the temptations of their passions: so they are swept in the temptations of Hell forever doomed to the light of reason and God (blown away in a storm)

Contrapasso
: Swept away by a storm like they were swept away by their desires in life

Imprisoned
Cleopatra
Helen
Achilles-
Fight with love
Tristan

Semiramis
- empress of tongues married Ninus and succeeded hi sensuality corrupted her
Dido-
killed herself for love
Palo amd Framcessa
- fated to marry Palo's brother and had an affair with each other
Modern Day Sinner
Circle Two consists of those who were lustful and betrayed rules and reasons for their own appetites. Madonna did this when she sold herself for fame and exposed her body to become famous. This is why she belongs in Circle Two of Hell.
Mythological references
Summary
In my Canto Dante realizes that this circle of hell is smaller than the first (hell is shaped like a funnel). Dante meets Minos and determines that the number of curls in his tail determine the circle of Hell in which sinners belong. Dante looks over the egde of a cliff and sees the lustful-those who betrayed reason for their appetites, swirling around in a storm (the punishment). The contrapasso: the sinners are swept away in a storm like they are swept away in life by their lust. This shows that this circle of Hell is important because Dante learns here that hell is unfair and he begins to have pity for the sinners; Dante passes out again. This Circle is important to the meaning of the work as a whole because it shows the symbol of lust that it wrong to pine after someone who is already committed, breaking a marriage is wrong and propaganda that refers to sex outside of marriage is against God. Abandon all hope ye who enter here- a message of warning that also implies hell is a city ( a large gathering of people). Overall this circle contributes to the work as a whole by showing the importance of the vow of marriage and commitment.
Circle 4: Hoarders and Wasters
Guardian -
Plutus (God of Material Wealth)

Famous Sinners

- corrupt clergymen, popes, and cardinals

Punishment
- Hoarders and Wasters form two separate groups in a circle, they push weights along until they crash into each other, they then turn the opposite way and repeat cycle

Contrapasso
- the Hoarders and Wasters were at odds with each other in life, and now their punishment is eternal condemnation to one another in death
Mythological References
Dame Fortune is depicted above and she was a central figure in medieval mythology. She holds a revolving wheel symbolic of Chance. Dante incorporates her into his scheme of the universe and gives her a special place in the service of God.
Modern Day Depiction of Avariciousness
drives an Acura despite having net worth of 9 billion dollars
wears the same gray tee shirt and hoodie to work everyday
backyard wedding
two weddings = $30 million
$400,000 venue on her most recent wedding
$74,000 per jet
paid Lana del Rey $2.8 million for a live performance
Modern Day Example of a Waster
Summary
Upon entering the Fourth Circle, Virgil and Dante come upon the guardian demon Plutus, the pagan god of wealth. Virgil quiets Plutus in order to gain entry into the circle. Dante sees a ditch formed around the circle, making the shape of a giant ring. Within this ring, two groups of souls push weights along in anger, pain, and suffering. Each group completes a semicircle before crashing into the other group and turning around to proceed in the opposite direction. This match occurs as one group cries, “Why hoard?” while the other cries “Why waste?” simultaneously. The Wasters’ crimes included spending everything whereas the Hoarders spent nothing. The souls of the Avaricious and Prodigals are thus condemned to this cyclical, eternal confrontation with one another. The contrapasso is that these two groups were at odds with one another in life, and now their punishment is eternal condemnation to one another in death. Virgil informs Dante that most of the Avaricious are corrupt clergymen, popes, and cardinals, showing that avarice yields political and ethical corruption. However, the experiences they undergo in the Fourth Circle render these sinners unrecognizable. These souls were undiscerning in life because they did not know what true wealth was. Now in death, the souls are unable to be recognized by the living Dante. Their crimes depict the extremes of wealth, and the takeaway from this is moderation. What is revealed is that the Avaricious and Prodigal share one essential characteristic: they were not prudent with the goods of Fortune.
Circle 8.1
Sin:
Panderers (pimps), seducers
Guardian:
Horned devils with lashes
Punishment:
endless fast walk nude, whipped by horned demons on every side.
Contrapasso:
Goaded others to serve their own foul purposes. Hell drove them to their own purposes, forced to do the same Hell.
-Demons represent their own vicious natures and consciences

Famous Sinners
Venedico-
pandered his sister through sexual favors for his own gain (the Marquis)
Caccianemico

Jason -
seduced ad impregnated Hypsipyle of Lemnos and then abandoned her in her pregnancy
Modern Day Sinner
Sinners in Circle 8.1 are described as those who persuade others to do things so they can gain something.Joseph Kony belongs in Circle 8.1 of Hell because he seduced children into being apart of his child-army. They did not understand that they were going to die- he used them for his own personal gain.
Mytholgical References
Summary and Analysis
Circle 8.2
Sin:
Flatterers
Guardian:
N/A
Punishment:
sunk in excrement
Contrapasso:
equivalent of their false flatteries on Earth
Famous Sinners:
-Alessio Interminei of Lucca
- he is a flatterer
- Thasis-

gave excessive thanks to her lover for sex
Modern Day Example:
Sinners in Circle 8.2 are portrayed as those who falsely compliment or give 'hope' to others.
Joe Biden,
as a politician, belongs in this circle of hell because he falsely promises of others things he would have done in his presidency just to get others to vote for him.
Summary/ Analysis:
In this circle Dante learns that it is arranged in Malebolge (evil pouches). Dante compares this to wall around a castle. Upon looking on these sinners Dante sees that they are naked and marching, a contrapasso because it is equivalent of their own foul purpose for others. This contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole because Dante compares their march to those who support Pope Boniface VIII (the man Dante hates). He says that those who support this pope are falsely seducing others. The sin is seducing or pimping.
In this Bulgia, Dante sees the sinners fight and howl amongst themselves, mold is growing on them. Their nails have excrement under them. The contrapasso is that they are covered in filth like the filth they said to others (false flattery). This contributes to the work as a whole because I think it is described as something Dante hates the most (the abundance of filth says he hates those who flatter others for their own gain) This may be specifically talking about politics and the feuding Black Guelfs and the White Guelfs and the flattery they falsely say to the people of Florence.
Circle Five: Wrath and Sullenness
The fifth circle contains two related groups of sinners- two different forms of a single sin: anger. Wrath is when anger is expressed and sullenness is when anger is repressed. The difference between the forms of anger can be seen in how the two groups are punished differently.
Punishment: Those who were wrathful fight and bite one another while covered in mud on the banks of the Styx River. Those who were sullen, completely invisible to Dante, lie under the surface of the Styx River where they choke on the black mud from the river
Guardian: Phlegyas is the boatman that takes Dante and Vigil across the Styx River. Like the guardians from past circles, Phlegyas had commited the sin of his circle. In Greek mythology it is said that he burned down the temple of Apollo in a fit of rage over the fact the god raped his daughter.
Dante sees Filippo Argenti in the river. Argenti attempts to grab the boat and is then torn into pieces by the wrathful. Argenti was a prominent Florentine politican who confiscated Dante's property after his expulsion from Florence. Dante's indifference to the character's destruction reflects the poet's anger and hatred for the politician.
Contrapasso: The wrathful expressed their anger which meant they let it control their actions. This is reflected by how they have to spend eternity fighting one another, their movements only expressing rage and hate. Their only purpose is to express hate. The sullen sulked and choked on their anger. This is reflected with how they sulk under the surface of the river and choke on its dark mud.
Virgil leads Dante to the Fifth Circle, located on the Styx River (mythological reference). Dante sees the wrathful and Virgil tells him about the sullen. They keep walking to a tall, flaming tower where they meet Phlegyas (mythological reference) who takes them across the river. Dante specifically writes about one sinner, Argenti, who tries to hold on to the boat but is ripped apart by the wrathful. This circle help demonstrates how Dante is changing on his journey. Instead of fainting, Dante simply watches the sinner get ripped apart, which reflects Dante the poet's personal view on the sinner.
Modern day sinners:

Wrath: Ray Rice, who in his anger, fought with and beat his then-fiance.
Sullenness: Kristen Stewart, who always appears sullen and complains about the fame she has achieved.
8.5 - GRAFTERS
Sin: grafting, or selling political favors for money

Guardian: Malebranche

Famous Sinners: Senator of Lucca, Bonturo Dati, Friar Gomita, Michel Zanche

Punishment: Sinners are tossed into a boiling pit of tar. If sinners try to come up for air, the demons thrust them down with their prongs.

Contrapasso: The sticky pitch is symbolic of the sticky hands of the grafters. It also serves to hide them from sight because their sinful dealings on earth were hidden from others' eyes.
Famous Sinners
Senators of Lucca - Dante didn't seem to have one specific man in mind. He wanted to say how the city of Lucca was a city of grafters in general.

Bonturo Dati - politician of Lucca

Friar Gomita - administered the district of Gallura for his own profit and was hanged when found guilty of taking bribes for prisoners' escapes

Michel Zanche - The King of Sardinia was captured and somehow Michel got a divorce between the king and queen and married the queen for himself.

Demons are called the Malebranche ("Evil Claws") and their duty is to keep the grafters under the surface of the boiling pitch.
Malacoda is the head demon and his name means "Evil Tail". He gives Virgil and Dante an alternate route.
Modern Day Grafter

Democrat Huey "Kingfish" Long convinced a third of the Senate to sign a document in favor of him in exchange for jobs, cash, and other rewards. He also intimidated others by firing their relatives from state jobs if he was opposed.
summary
Dante and Virgil come across an “astounding darkness” - a great pit of boiling tar. Sinners are tossed into the pit and forced to stay under the surface by the Malebranche demons. The contrapasso is that the grafters are buried in this pitch and hidden from sight, since their sins were hidden from sight in life. Virgil tell the Malabranche that their journey is the will of Heaven and only then do they agree to let them pass. They even provide an escort of ten demons because one of the bridges between the bolgias has collapsed. The reader also gains a sense of timing about this journey through Malacoda – Dante began midday on April 8th, 1300 (Good Friday). This means that Dante follows Christ into Hell on the anniversary of Christ’s death. Virgil manages to talk to one of the sinners, a Navarrese soul. Some demons become suspicious of this soul, thinking he wants to escape torture and seek relief in the pitch. The soul races into the pitch and dives in, not intending to return. The demons who fly after the soul become mired in the sticky blackness. The success of the Navarrese soul’s trick is surprising because the demons appear to be too powerful to be duped by those they torture. However, it must be noted that the demons are captives here (they are fallen angels themselves) and the demons have made mistakes in life and will continue to make mistakes in the underworld. It is also important to notice that when Dante visits circles, the souls are given somewhat a period of relief as seen through the Navarrese soul’s temporary rest. This shows that Dante’s presence interrupts a sinner’s eternal punishment, which thus shows that Dante’s presence in Hell upsets Hell’s equilibrium.
8.6 - Hypocrites
Guardian - none

Famous Sinners - Caiaphas & Jovial Friars

Punishment - sinners wear fancy robes which are lined with lead and they must walk eternally round and round a narrow track

Contrapasso - A hypocrite's outward appearance shines brightly and passes for holiness, but under that facade lies the terrible weight of deceit (the lead) which must be endured for all of eternity.
Famous Sinners


Caiaphas - served as the high priest under Pontius Pilate who advised Pharisees to allow Jesus to die rather than provoke trouble in the nation. Caiaphas's punishment has multiple significances -
1. because he preached prudence but did not show it, he resides in this bolgia
2. because he called for Christ's crucifixion, he himself lies crucified
3. because his actions contributed to the suffering of one for the sins of many, he now bears the weight of all of the other Hypocrite sinners.
Jovial Friars & Politics


The two Jovial Friars who talk to Dante and Virgil are named Catalano and Loderingo. The term "Jovial Friars" was the name given to military monks of Glorious Virgin Mary. They were to serve as peacemakers and supposed to enforce order. However, their management of worldly affair became self-seeking.
Modern Day Hypocrite

Though Milkman is determined to be as different as his father, he ends up treating people exactly the way Macon did. Macon treats everyone as a possession and something that he owns. Milkman treats Hagar like something he owns and something that can be easily disposed of, and there are no feelings attached at any point. This lack of human awareness and sympathy is also shown when Macon treats his customers harshly when it comes to the money. At a period in his life, Milkman does end up becoming self-centered and arrogant like his father.
Summary and Analysis
Circle 6: Heretics
Sin:
Heresy, the refutation of the soul's immortality. Followers of Epicurus who believe that the soul dies with the body.
Guardians:
The Furies. They are the avenging goddesses who went after great sinners. They symbolize remorse that does not lead to repentance. This is how the Heretics are.
Punishment:
Locked in iron tombs surrounded by fire for eternity.
Contrapasso:
Since the heretics do not believe in the soul's immortality, it is fitting for them to live out their immortal lives in constant pain.
Modern Day Sinner
Stephen Hawking
Famed physicist Stephen Hawking announced he does not believe in an afterlife and that heaven is a "fairy story for people afraid of the dark."
Hawking would be put into this circle because he does not beleive in the soul's immortality or the afterlife.
Famous Sinners
Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti- Guelph Dante's friend's father, atheist
Guido Cavalcanti- Guelph, Dante's best friend, atheist
Farinata degli Uberti- Famous Ghibelline
Epicurus- philosopher who believed the soul died with the body
Pope Anastasius- considered a traitor to the Catholic Church.
Cardinal Ottaviano degli Ubaldini- Supporter of the Ghibelline cause
Emperor Federick II- Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy, was a Epicurean
The City of Dis
City that separates the upper hell from the lower hell. Lower hell has worse sinners who have harsher punishments. This city is guarded by the three furies named Alecto, Magaera, and Tisiphone. They threaten to summon Medusa to turn Dante and Virgil to stone. But a messenger from God comes and stops them.
Analysis
The sinners in this circle are doomed to live out eternity as the dead of the dead. This circle is heavily influenced by the politics of Florence. Dante can relate to the inhabitants of this circle because he is in conflict with the pope, but he is not an atheist. Any individual who believed that the soul would die when someone died would be in this circle because a heretic, as Dante defined it, is someone who denied the Catholic teaching of the afterlife.

Circle 8.3- Simoniacs

Sin- The simoniacs have bought or sold church pardons or offices.

Punishment-Sinners are stuck head first in pits, with only their feet sticking out. Their souls squirm while flames encircle their feet.

Contrapasso- The pits symbolize baptismal fonts: as by the anointment during baptism, the sinners received the flame of the Holy Spirit. Now, their feet are set ablaze. Also, since they fraudulently pocketed money, they are now pocketed in holes.
Dante and Virgil are pursued by the angry demons who come chasing after them. Virgil uses his body as a sort of sled down the slope, allowing them to evade the demons because these demons cannot leave their assigned bolgias. It becomes clear that as they descend further and further down Hell, their surroundings grow darker and more dangerous, to the extent that they only barely escape the demons. In the Sixth Bolgia, Virgil and Dante see a group of Hypocrite souls trudging along in a circle, clothed in capes lined with lead. Dante's two themes of religion and politics collide again in this bolgia. The Jovial Friars were an order founded to keep peace and enforce order. Of the two friars that Dante encounters here, one was a Guelph and one was a Ghibelline. Both friars were jointly appointed to help bring peace to Florence. However, their reign resulted in much bloodshed and violence, and they were shortly removed from office. Dante’s encounter with the crucified Caiaphas constitutes a dramatic and moral highlight.
Sinners
Pope Nicholas III-Accused by Dante of Simony and Nepotism.
Pope Boniface VIII-Sold indulgences or absolution.
Pope Clement V-Bargained with the French king to guarantee his election and later abducted the papacy and spirited it away from Rome and into Avignon.
Simon Magus- Offered gold in exchange for holy power to Saint Peter.
Analysis
Circle 8, Bolgia 3 houses Simoniacs- those who have bought or sold church favors or offices. These people are placed in pits, upside down with fire surrounding their feet. This is significant because they are now receiving the flame of the Holy Spirit while being pocketed- just as they pocketed money. Dante originally places Pope Nicholas III in this circle, but Pope Nicholas III predicts the arrival of Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Clement V.
Analysis- Part II
This bolgia exposes Dante's anger and the corruption of the church at this town. Dante depicts Rome (the papal seat) "as a whore who fornicates with kings for money." He also accuses Constantine for funding the church after converted to Christianity.


Famous Sinner
Friars were pledged to a life of poverty so the Friar in The Canterbury Tales solitcited donations and in exchange sold forgiveness from the church.
Circle 8.4
Sin: Fortunetellers
Punishment: Their heads are turned backward on their shoulders.
Contrapasso: Those who have tried to look too far forward into the future now have their heads backward.
Sinners
Amphiaraus- A king who foresaw his own defeat and tried to hide from it.
Tiresias- Changed himself from a man to a woman and back again.
Aruns- Predicted Caesar's victory.
Manto- Tiresias' daughter.
More Sinners
Calchas- Greek augar involved in choosing the sailing date for Troy.
Michael Scot-Astrologer.
Guido Bonatti-Astrologer.
Asdente- Practiced magic.
Kathleen Meadows
Famous psychic fortune teller and tarot reader from Canada.
Analysis
Dante feels horrible for these sinners, until Virgil tells him he should feel otherwise. These sinners have tried to see into the future, and are now forced to look back forever. Dante acknowledges Virgil's authority after he had a change of mind. Virgil is quick to point out all of the various sinners in this circle- they are numerous.
Circle 8.9
Circle 8.10
Central Pit of Malebolge
Sowers of Scandal and Schism
Falsifiers
Circle 8.7
Thieves

Punishment: The thieves are continuously being chased by lizards, serpents, and dragons. When they are caught, the lizards and serpents curl around the sinners and some bite them, causing their bodies to burn into ashes. Others curl so tightly around the sinners that they merge together and switch characteristics until they completely reversed their forms.
The crime fits the punishment because the thieves spent their lives taking from others and transforming it into their own. In Hell their bodies are taken from them by the serpents and transformed into the serpent's.
Famous Sinners:
-Vanni Fucci- robbed a sacristy, he stole a treasure from the Church of St. James in his hometown; he had accused an innocent man
-The Florentine thieves (Dante sarcastically remarks that Florentines not only reached fame on Earth, but also Hell)

Circle 9: Treachery
In the Ninth Circle of Hell
there are four rings.

1. Caina
2. Antenora
3. Ptolomea
4. Judecca
Virgil and Dante come upon Cocytus, the frozen lake of the ninth circle.
Dante and Virgil advance and see two twins frozen face to face butting heads with each other.
He then sees Bocca Degli Abati, an Italian traitor. Dante's reaction to Bocca is cursing him and ripping his hair out

Guardians: The Circle of Giants, Nimrod and Antaeus,
their feet stand into Cocytus.
Notable Sinners:





Treachery Against Kin
After the long walk, Virgil and Dante climb the wall in the seventh pouch of Hell. They see the serpents chasing and binding the sinners. The first sinner he sees is bitten and his body is turned to ash, though his soul rises up and returns to the pit of serpents. Dante then talks to Fucci, who is very anat of the White Guelphs (which Dante knows because the year he wrote the book is after the year the book is set in). Fucci curses God, which shows he is unrepentant like the rest of the sinners in Hell. Dante then sees serpents coil so tightly around sinners that they switch forms. Fucci is different from others we have seen, who doesn't want his story told and is embarrassed to be seen in Hell, though he does not regret his crime. Throughout the poem we can see the importance of fame and glory being discussed and analyzed.
Bocca degli Abati: betrayed the Florentine Guelphs in battle. Degli Abati tells Dante to leave him alone, but Dante cannot hold back his hate for this traitor to his party
Modern Day Sinner:
Winona Ryder- was caught stealing from a department store
Circle 8.8: Evil Counselors
Punishment: Evil counselors, people who have been given a gift from God, and used it for evil, spend eternity trapped in large flames. The punishment fits the crime because they stole God's virtue by using his gifts for evil so the sinners are stolen in flames, forever trapped in their guilty consciousness.
Famous Sinners:
Ulysses and Diomedes, who are from Greek mythology. They are suffering from the fraud they committed during the Trojan War. They sailed beyond the western edge of the Mediterranean, which was believed to constitute the rim of the Earth. When the crew came in view of a great mountain. Before they could reach it, however, a great storm arose and sank their ship.
Ring 2: Antenora
Famous Sinners:
Guido da Montefeltro: a member of the Ghibellines. After a time, he underwent a religious conversion and joined a monastery, but he was then persuaded by Pope Boniface VIII to reenter politics on the opposing side. At one point, Boniface asked him for advice on how to conquer Palestrina. Da Montefeltro showed reluctance, but Boniface promised him absolution in advance, even if his counsel were to prove wrong. He then agreed to give his advice, which turned out to be incorrect. He went to Hell because the devil said a man could not receive absolution before sinning, for absolution cannot precede the sin. He first talked to Dante when he heard the language he was speaking and asked about his city.
Treachery Against Allegiances
Virgil and Dante continue on Cocytus
Dante is shocked to see one sinner gnawing at another’s head from behind.
The sinner stops gnawing after Dante says he may want to spread this sinner's good name on Earth declares that in life he was Count Ugolino; the man whose head he chews was Archbishop Ruggieri
Virgil and Dante walk into the dark valley and see numerous flames shooting up. Virgil tells him that they contain sinners and there they see Ulysses and Diomedes. Virgil talkes between them because Dante only speaks Italian. Guido hears Dante speaking Lombard tongue and agrees to tell him his story because he believe Dante won't get out of Hell to tell his story. Though Dante uses the poem to point out the political wrongs of his country, he also portrays the strong sense of Patriotism Italians feel, like when Montefeltro begged to hear news about Romagna, even though it wont bring him peace. Dante also makes a point about his religious beliefs in this circle, when Montefeltro went to hell even though he was absolved beforehand. It shows that Dante feels that to be absolved, one must be repentant. And if one is absolved beforehand, than at the very moment of being absolved they intend to commit a sin. He implies that Christians who find themselves in moral dilemmas must use their reason rather than blindly follow the directions of a church figure.
Modern Day Sinner:
Bernard Madoff
He was a former stockbroker, investment advisory, and financier. He confessed being the operator of a Ponzi scheme that is considered to be the largest financial fraud in U.S. history
Notable Sinners: Count Ugolino and Archbishop Ruggieri.
Both men lived in Pisa, and the archbishop, a traitor himself, had imprisoned Ugolino and his sons as traitors. He denied them food, and when the sons died, Ugolino, who was driven to extreme hunger, ate their bodies.
Ring 3: Ptolomea
Treachery Against Guests
Sin: The souls in this bolge have sowed discord in religious, political, or familial structures.
Guardians: Demons with swords
Punishment: the souls are cut apart by the demons and when they heal they are split apart again.
Contrapasso: Since these souls have caused such great divides in society, it is fitting for them to be split apart.
Famous Sinners
Modern Day Sinner
Analysis
Famous Sinners
Analysis
Modern Sinners
Mohammad and Ali- responsible for splitting the Muslims into the Sunnis and the Shiites
Curio-convinced Caesar to betray his friend Pompey and invade Rome causing a civil war.
Mosca- contributed to the issues with the Guelphs and the Ghibellines.
Bertran de Born- Notorious man who turned Prince Henry against his father King Henry II
Sin: In this bolge the sinners are falsifiers of metals (alchemists), people, coin (money), or words
Guardian-none
Punishment- They are all inflicted with various punishments and diseases that hurt all of their senses.
Contrapasso- Since they corrupted the senses of others with their lies, their senses are corrupted. They are considered diseases to society so they are inflicted with diseases.

Griffolino D'arezzo- convinced a man to give him a large amount of gold for flying lessons.
Capocchio- friend of Dante, alchemist
Gianni Schinni- Evil impersonator who impersonated Buoso de Donati to get money from his will
Myrrah- disguised herself to sleep with her father, King of Cyprus, then when he threatened to kill her she turned herself into a plant.
Master Adam- Counterfeiter who is punished with eternal thirst.
Sinon the Greek-falsifier of words, convinced the Trojans that he betrayed the Greeks and that the Trojan horse was a present
This is a city of giants who are considered part of the Earth, born from the earth and so they are put back in the earth.
Giants:
Nimrod- king of Babylon
Ephialtes- wanted to start a war with the gods, so his hands are tied down
Antaeus- eats lions
Since these people are so focused on separating people, God deemed it fitting for them to be split apart repeatably. Here is where Dante sees the real meaning of Contrapasso, where he says this is where the punishment exactly fits the crime (as for Betran)
Andy Bernard from "the Office" should be in this bolge because he tries to get the boss to fire Dwight by telling him information in a deceitful way, and it works.
Sinners are frozen in ice with their faces poking out of the ice, exposed to the howling winds of Cocytus.
Notable sinners: Fra Alberigo and Branca d’Oria. Fra killed his cousin by calling in assassins with the keyword "fruit", and Branca murdered his father-in-law at a banquet
RING FOUR: JUDECCA
Treachery Against Benefactors
Dante and Virgil happen upon Lucifer, Dis, Satan
He has three faces and six wings, which create the winds
of Cocytus. Each face has three sinners in its mouth.

Notable Sinners: Brutus, Judas, Cassius. Each sinner is in
mouths of Lucifer, who chews them eternally but never
kills them. Judas is the only one who is headfirst into
the maw of Satan, only his legs protrude.

Contrapasso
These sinners are trapped in ice as a symbol of complete isolation from everything (human life and warmth), devoid of God's love. Spending eternity
with Satan.
Modern Day Sinners
Ring One: Caina
The Cambridge Five
The souls in this bolgia have various diseases and they attack each other viciously trying to claw everyone, including themselves. Many of the diseases are topical and the bodies are practically rotting will the the souls are "alive". Dante also becomes less sympathetic to the souls in this section because he is seen egging on two of the sinners who are fighting (but he stops when Virgil scolds him)
These two sinners impersonated police officers in order to force people to give up their money. They would belong in this circle because they are falsifiers of people who are evil.
Analysis


Virgil and Dante are lowered into the Ninth Circule by Antaeus of the Giants of Malebolge. Dante and Virgil happen upon the four rings of Circle Nine; Caina, Antenora, Ptolomea, and Judecca. Along the way they see hundreds of sinners entombed in the ice. This circle juxstaposes the rest of Hell in that it is ice, devoid of God's observable wrath and warmth. This shows how the worst sin, treachery, renders one isolated from any attention of God, spending eternity with Satan. Satan is a perversion of God as is the rest of Hell as one can see his distorted anatomical greatness in the six wings and three faces and large size. Virgil climbs up Satan with Dante to escape through the center of Earth where Satan fell as he hurtled toward Earth after being cast down by God. He is in the center and God can observe him.
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