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The Roaring Twenties

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Rebecca Ren

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of The Roaring Twenties

Harding advocated for a "rerturn to normalcy"
Return to normacly: life before WWI
A focus on restoration
Having stability
Staying out of European affairs
A return to big business
New industries - electrical and automobile
Emergence of advertising
Bruce Barton, "The Man Nobody Knows"
Purchasing on credit, "buy today and pay tomorrow"
Advent of household appliances
Financial Institutions
Federal Reserve
Responsible for managing economic fluctuations
Expanded credit by
Lowering market rates
Favoring big banks
Played a leading role in the boom of the 1920s and the bust of the 1930s
Bureau of the Budget
Placed formal restrictions on the spending of government funds
Later became Office of Management and Budget
Tariffs and Laws

America became world's creditor
Return of working forces to factories
Technological improvements
Buying stocks “on margin”
Small investors tried to make quick money, while large investors controlled stock prices
Before 1929, stock prices steadily rose for 8 years, and many ordinary people began buying stocks
Fluctuations in market stability started in 1929, and increased greatly in October of that year
WOMEN, LABOR, & MINORITIES
THE
POLITICS

THE
ECONOMY

Wall Street
Mass Consumption Economy
Effects of WWI
Putting America on Rubber Tires
Leading Women Figures & Groups
Alice Paul
Women's Christian Temperance Union
Frances Willard
Flappers
The Red Scare
The Scopes Trial
1920
1930
1925
Began several years after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, which spawned a tiny Communist party in the United States
Anyone who wasn’t as patriotic as possible--conscientious objectors, draft dodgers, immigrants--was suspect.
At the time of the Red Scare, millions of people were without jobs, and war industries were left without contracts.
More than ten thousand people were arrested and interrogated with little regard for their right to due process.
The Red Scare quickly ran its course and, by the summer of 1920, it was largely over.
The Ku Klux
Klan
The Klan boasted that it included almost 15% of all the eligible population- totalling to about 4-5 million members
Younger Generation/ Emergence of Flappers
The Klan’s power peaked in the 1920-1925 period under Imperial Wizard Hiram Wesley Evans
Roaring Twenties was a time of great change including social changes such as women fashion
flappers wore very different clothing
primary features of clothing was short skirts and dropped waistlines
smoked, drank, danced, and voted just like the males
cut her hair, wore make up, and took risks
in general, younger generation was breaking away from more traditional values
Growth of assembly-lines and mass production
Frederick W. Taylor - inventor and engineer
Henry Ford's Model T
Cheap and sturdy
Affordable to most
Ubiquitous in the U.S.
Transformed morals
Emergency Tariff of 1921
Established to boost declining farm profits
Raised duties on most imported agricultural products
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Raised American tariffs to protect factories and farms
American industries wanted to
Ensure economic self-sufficiency
Preserve benefits of increased wartime demand for many industries
Mellon Plan
Reformed taxes, lowering the taxes for everyone
The extremely rich had their taxes lowered from 77% to 24%
The poor had their taxes lowered from 4% to 0.5%
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
Raised tariffs in the US to a record level
Imports and exports in the US were cut to 1/2 of their original amounts
Faced criticism
Prohibition of Alcohol
Hurt businesses that sold alcohol
Led to a rise in organized crime in the United States
Election of 1920
Women's Suffrage
Warren G. Harding
alledgedly was part of the Klan
1929
St. Valentine's Day Massacre
Stock Market crash
Negro Experimental Theater - Regina Anderson
Stock Market Crash
1921
Emergency Quota Act
Sacco-Vanzetti trial
Bureau of the Budget
Emergency Tariff
Bryn Mawr Summer School established
Margaret Sanger - American Birth Control League
Immigration Restriction [South/East Europe] passed
1930
20 million Model T's sold
On October 24, 1929 the market suffered a crash which prompted banks to make funds available for buying future stocks
On October 29, Black Tuesday, the market completely crashed and banks could not control the sell-off
The Market had lost over $30 Billion over the span of two days
The Market would not reach its previous peak (September 3, 1929), until November 1954
Stock Market Crash
1919
Household Appliances
1920's
Legal case in 1924
High school science teacher, John Scopes, placed under scrutiny after violation Tennessee’s Butler Act
Made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state funded school
Tennessee was only one of the 21 states that debunked evolution
Five states passed laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution, including two after the Scopes Trial
Modernists believed religion was consistent with evolution
Religious fundamentalists believed word of God took precedence over all human knowledge
Trial drew national publicity
First trial covered by the Broadcast Media
Scopes trial caused a major outcry for enactment of similar legislation in other states
Prosecution and Defense
William Jennings Bryan: argued for prosecution
3 times presidential candidate form the Democrats
“Fundamentalist leader for the people”
Worked for Wilson but resigned after the Lusitania incident
Supporter of Prohibition
Lead a crusade against Darwinism
Clarence Darrow: defense attorney for Scopes
Results
Scopes trial caused a major outcry for enactment of similar legislation in other states
Some Fundamentalists wanted to promote the Protestant faith in public schools
Teaching evolution would weaken their stance
Fundamentalist goal was to create a link from public education to state legislatures
Published and lobbied for 25 education reform bills
9 of the 25 bills addressed the theory of evolution
Evolution was seen as liberal heresy
The fight for education reform was a way to influence America as a whole
Not just to limit the scope of Biology taught in a classroom
The Law challenged by the ACLU in the Scopes Trial remain in effect for 50 more years
Tennessee repealed the Butler Act in 1968
Supreme Court rules in Epperson vs. Arkansas that such bans in teaching are unconstitutional if they are primarily religious in intent
1922
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Herrin Massacre
Great Railroad Strike
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
First mass organization among women for some social reform
Organized in 1874 by Francis Willard
Became the largest organization of women in the world
Frances Willard
Sacco and Venzetti
Anarchists who were convicted of murdering 2 men during an armed-robbery in Massachusetts
Arrest of Sacco and Venzetti coincided with the Red Scare
They had no prior record
Both foreign-born radicals
Known to police for their participation in labor strikes, political agitation, and anti-war propaganda
Dedicated supporters of Italian- language journal Cronanca Sovversiva which was the most influential anarchist journal in America
1927 both were sentenced to death
Sacco and Venzetti trial currently viewed today as a classic example of tyranny of the establishment over the poor and politically non-conforming
Many believe that their convictions resulted from prejudice against them as Italian immigrants and because of their radical beliefs
Quotes from Important Figures in Trial
"This man, although he may not have actually committed the crime attributed to him is nevertheless morally culpable, because he is an enemy of our existing institutions." -
Thayer, Presiding judge of Case
“All right you have won ... America our nation has been beaten by strangers who have turned our language inside out ... they have built the electric chair and hired the executioner to throw the switch . . . all right we are two nations . . .”-
John Dos Passos, USA Reporter
Bertrand Russell argued: "I am forced to conclude that they were condemned on account of their political opinions and that men who ought to have known better allowed themselves to express misleading views as to the evidence because they held that men with such opinions have no right to live. A view of this sort is one which is very dangerous, since it transfers from the theological to the political sphere a form of persecution which it was thought that civilized countries had outgrown."-
Bertrand Russell, Historian and Political Acticist during Trials
Results
Liberals joined the politically radical anarchists, socialists, and communists in protesting the verdict placed against Sacco and Venzetti
American Civil Liberties Union and other labor organizations rallied support for the Sacco and Venzetti trial
Other conservatives saw protest by radicals and liberals as an attack on the “American way of Life”
Execution prompted demonstrations throughout the US, Europe, and Lation America
Both men had turned into symbols of social justice for many around the globe
Workings of American democracy now seemed flawed and unjust to many American people; many felt that the duo was only convicted due to the pre-established prejudice existing due to the fact that they were foreign and maintained radical political views
American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist
founder and organizer of WCTU
had over a million female supporters
found an ally in the Anti-saloon league, which was aggressive, well organized, and well financed
Documentary- please follow links on youtube!
Alice Paul
American suffragist and activist
joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
was arrested and jailed for her speech on suffrage
later appointed Chairwoman of the Congressional Committee in Washington DC
along with suffragists Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton lobbied for a constitutional amendment to secure the right to vote for women, which became the 19th Amendment
proposed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which stated that women will have equal rights under the law, to add to the constitution
ERA did not find its way into Congress until 1972
ERA was never passed
Alice Paul celebrating the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920
Gave an easy win for Calvin Coolidge in 1925
Split Democratic Vote between:
John W. Davis- Klan backed
Al Smith- Catholic
Justice Hugo Black was part of the Klan
1919-1920
The Red Scare
1919
End of WWI
18th Amendment
1924
Immigration Act
KKK controls 24 of 48 legislatures
The Mellon Plan
Mary Montgomery Booze -Republican National Committee
Child Labor Amendment proposed
1923
Harding dies
Teapot Dome scandal
Equal Rights Amendment proposed
1928
Presidental election - Hoover
Kellogg-Briand Pact
1920
Presidental election - Harding
19th Amendment
Great Steel Strike of 1919 ends
Palmer Raids
1925
Klansmen march
Nellie Taylor Ross - first governor [Wyoming]
1927
Sacco and Vanzetti executed
Mine Strike - Colorado
Columbine Mine massacre

Section 4 - IB History
18th Amendment to the Constitution:
Implemented 1919; Wilson veto overturned
Morris Sheppard
Prohibition Party
Repealed 1932 by FDR
Prohibition
The klan enjoyed major political power
Mayors and governors would join the Klan to win votes
192
6
Negro History Week - Carter G. Woodson
African American women beaten in Alabama for attempting to vote
YWCA - interracial chapter
Violette N. Anderson - Supreme Court
Railway Labor Act
1920
s
Harlem Renaissance
Presidents
Harry S. Truman
Women
Supreme Court
During the early 1920s, the Klan helped elect 16 U.S. Senators and many Representatives and local officials. By 1924, when the Klan had reached its peak in numbers and influence, it claimed to control 24 of the nation's 48 state legislatures
Labor
Minorities
Immigration
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 passed due to the Red Scare.
Reduced the amount of immigrants that were allowed into the US.
Set limit of 3% of current population of any ethnic group in the country
The Immigration Law of 1924 was also passed due to the Red Scare
Built on the Emergency Quota act by reducing percent to 2.
Impact of WW1
No longer limited to domestic sphere
active role in traditionally-male dominated careers
After WW1, soldiers returned home and women returned to domestic lives
No longer wanted to live domestic lives
had experienced freedom
Development of radio + electricity opened up jobs for women
Great Depression took jobs away once again
Freedom
Flappers
Smoking + drinking + wearing less
Reduced around 12 yards of material from clothing [1913~1928]
More women completing HS and attaining high status
Election dominated by aftermath of WWI and hostile reaction to Wilson
Economy in a recession; American forgeign policy shifting to isolationism
Republican candidate: Senator Harding; Democratic candidate: Governor Cox
Harding's running mate: Coolidge; Cox's running mate: FDR
A Return to Normalcy
Benefit/Loss
19th Amendment
Suffrage for women
Women finally gained political equality + suffrage
Many new jobs
New fashion
Sexual liberation
Feminists emerge
Fight for women's independence
Benefit/Loss
Booming economy created new jobs
Labor unions were harmed by workers' strikes in the 1920's
Seattle General Strike
February 1919
First city-wide strike + "general" strike
Denounced by media + press
"revolutionary plot"
Red Scare
police and vigilantes rounded up "Reds"
IWW hall and Socialist Party headquarters were raided and leaders arrested
Federal agents closed the Union Record
"Seattle was saved" - Mayor Hanson
Americans had triumphed over “Bolshevism.”
President Harding
Harding wins with a landslide; first election where women could vote
His administration was notroious for scandal, Teapot Dome Scandal
Under Harding, Congress slashed taxes, established a Federal budget system, restored a high protective tariff, imposed limitations on immigration
Passed away in 1923 from a heart attack
Coolidge takes over and in his first speech to Congress, he called for isolationism, tax cuts, and limited aid to farmers
Impact of WW1
Turmoil and social unrest
Strikes lead to military action and various arrests
Regression in Progressive policies
Impact of Actions/Policies of 1920's
19th Amendment - Women's Suffrage
ratification was a landmark policy for the equality of women
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”
President Coolidge
Coolidge beat his opponent (Davis) in the election of 1924
Coolidge's policies favored big businesses and opposed government intervention
Under Coolidge, Congress cut federal taxation and spending, maintained a high protective tariff, and changed regulatory policy to favor businesses
Coolidge championed the Revenue Acts of 1924 and 1926
Coolidge also supported expanding American commercial
Coolidge announced that he would not run for re-election in 1928
Impact of Actions/Policies of 1920's
Normalcy - President Harding
April 1921: Harding calls for a return to Normalcy - cure for depression
tariffs
Tax reduction, national debt reduction, immigration restriction, national budget, farm relief legislation
Harding cut expenses by $2 billion since Wilson's presidency
Things were looking better
Impact of Actions/Policies of 1920's
Normalcy continued - President Coolidge
Coolidge built policy based on Harding’s
Unemployment settled at 3.3% (fell from 20% in 1921)
GNP 7% from 1924-1929
Increased wages, profits, and productivity meant good news for laborers/customers
Kept spending at $3.3billion
Tax reductions increased revenue to fund debt relief (1/3 of debt paid off)
Republican Policies - laborers
kept laborers in mind
Agriculture -laborers
Up until 1920, farms experienced prosperity and prices rose.
wartime demand/foreign markets lost
Tariffs
Smooth-Hawley Act of 1930: guaranteed manufacturers monopoly in domestic market
Class Division
Lower Class: no tax burden
Middle Class: less of a tax burden
middle class grew: citizens could afford basic appliances
American Values / Prioritization of Others through Generosity
1921-1923: Joint Private Government Relief Effort to help famined families in Soviet Russia
The political genius of President Coolidge, Walter Lippmann pointed out in 1926, was his talent for effectively doing nothing: "This active inactivity suits the mood and certain of the needs of the country admirably. It suits all the business interests which want to be let alone.... And it suits all those who have become convinced that government in this country has become dangerously complicated and top-heavy...."
Benefit/Loss
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Merged in the 20’s when it gained widespread support
sought to persecute immigrants and minorities.
The Immigration Act of 1924
restricted a new influx of immigrants into the US.
Impact of WW1
Racial Injustice both at home and abroad (war)
African Americans and other minorities
Harlem Renaissance
Artistic + intellectual achievements
President Hoover
Hoover ran against Democratic Governor Smith
Hoover easily won because of the booming economy attributed to the Republicans and Smith suffered prejudice for being a Catholic and being anti-prohibition
Hoover expanded civil service coverage, canceled private oil leases on government land, set aside land for national parks and forests, advocated for lower taxes for low income families, closed certain tax loopholes for the wealthy, created an antitrust division in the Justice Department
The stock market crashed and the economy went into a depression under his administration
Impact of Actions/Policies of 1920's
Immigrants
Decreased immigration - American policies shift
Congress passed legislation limiting the number of European immigrants
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 restricted the number of European immigrants to a defined quota of 3% of the population of the nationality in the United States in 1910
The Immigration Act of 1924 changed the quote from 3% to 2%.
The national-origins based was shifted from the census of 1910 to that of 1890, before the heavy influx of southern Europeans.
This act barred Japanese immigrants from entering the United States.
Canadians and Latin Americans were exempt from this quota, because they were desired to work jobs.
By 1931, more foreigners left than arrived due to the quotas.
Racism and Prohibition
Racial Prejudice in the
South
Xenophobia
Anti-German sentiment; WWI
Wayne B. Wheeler against Milwaukee brewers
"Kaiser Brew"
In South, prevented blacks from consuming/obtaining alcohol
Prohibitionist "Pressure Groups"
Anti-Saloon League
WCTU
Lobbying organization for prohibition
Protestant values
Wayne B. Wheeler: "The Man Who Turned off the Taps"
“...one of the most powerful lobbies ever seen at the National Capital.”
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union
Prohibitionist
Pioneering group of women for social reform
1874 under Frances Willard
Ku Klux Klan
Enforcement of prohibition
Prohibition -> resurgence of KKK
Reacted with violence to bootleggers
Wets vs. Drys
A "Vote Dry" Pro-Prohibition Poster
Prohibition
Effects of Prohibition
Organized Crime
Other Effects
Statistics during prohibition...
Arrests for Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct: + 41%
Arrests for Drunken Drivers: + 81%
Bootleggers: speakeasies, home-brewing
Mobs of gangsters in cities
Branching out of crime
Smaller scale crime
Al Capone
1930, “take” of organized crime, $12-18 billion
Police funding: + $11.4 million
Federal Expenditures on Penal Institutions: +1,000%
Federal Prison Population: + 366%
Law enforcement
Prohibition navy
Interestingly...
Advertisements prompted people to purchase more
Portrayed ideal families comfortably settled at home
Led to more leisure time, especially for women
Electricity played a major role
Bruce Barton
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Henry Ford
Charles Hamlin
Warren Harding
Andrew Mellon
Charles Mitchell
J. P. Morgan
Ransom Olds
Benjamin Strong
Frederick Taylor
Key Figures
1932
Repeal of Prohibition
Timeline
Economy
Politics
Women/Labor/Minorities

"Prohibition"
Ken Burns
Wets: anti-prohibition
Drys: prohibitionist
Wets vs Drys
Urban vs Rural
Full transcript