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Bipolar Disorder

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Sasha Gamble

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder is a brain disorder that is characterized by intense emotions; unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity and sleep patterns, and unusual behaviors; moods can range from manic to depressive. Some mood episodes may include features of both manic and depressive episodes.
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).
Types of
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder can be hereditary, Bipolar Disorder may run in families, and genetic studies have found evidence that certain genes may also play a role in the development of Bipolar Disorder. Brains of people with Bipolar Disorder may differ from healthy brains or brains of people with other disorders.
(Carlson, 2010, pp. 572).
Medications used to treat Bipolar Disorder include mood stabilizers, antidepressants and antipsychotics. Sleep medications may also be prescribed to help with the sleep problems associated with the disorder.

Psychotherapy treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy are also used to help people suffering with bipolar disorder.

Alternative treatments include electroconvulsive therapy

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).
Bipolar Disorder is diagnosed by a licensed mental health professional.

Mania is a crucial symptom for diagnosing bipolar disorder, without mania it is considered depressive disorder.

The type of Bipolar Disorder is determined by the pattern and duration of symptoms.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/bipolar-disorder/index.shtml

Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation (2016). Diagnosis by the DSM. Retrieved from http://www.jbrf.org/diagnosis-by-the-dsm/

UC Neuroscience Institute (2013). The Cruel Duality of Bipolar DIsorder. Retrieved from http://ucneuroscience.com/blog/the-cruel-duality-of-bipolar-disorder-creativity-and-high-risk/

Gao, Y. Jhaveri, M. Lei, Z. Chaneb, B.L. Lingrel, J. El-Mallakh, R.S. (2013). Glial-specific gene alterations associated with manic behaviors. International Journal of Bipolar Disorders Volume 1 : 20. Retrieved From http://journalbipolardisorders.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2194-7511-1-20

Carlson, N. (2010). Physiology of Behavior (10th Ed). Amherst, MA : Pearson.
Individuals having a manic episode may experience increased energy, racing thoughts and a sense of elation. They may have increased activity levels and touble sleeping. They may feel jumpy, agitated or irratable. They may talk really fast about a lot of different things, try to do a lot of different things at once or engage in risky behavior.

Milder episodes of mania are known
as hypomanic episodes
During a depressive episode, an individual may feel very sad, tired, down, empty or hopeless. They may have very little energy and decreased activity levels. They may sleep too little or too much. They may have trouble concentrating, forget things, eat too much or too little or experience thoughts of suicide or death.

The amygdala is smaller in children and larger than normal in adults with Bipolar Disorder.

Brain imaging of people with Bipolar Disorder shows increased activity in the amygdala.

The amygdala plays a role in depression.

(UC Neuroscience Institute, 2016).
Glial Dysfunction
Many studies have found reduced glial number, reduced glial size and anormal glial function in bipolar disorder compared to control groups without bipolar disorder.
Glial dysfunction is related to manic behaviors.
Prefrontal Cortex
The subgenual ACC, a region of the medial pefrontal cortex, shows a lower level of activity during depressive episodes and a higher level of activity during manic episodes
Lithium is an antipsychotic drug that is very rapid and effective in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder. It is effetive in treeating the manic phase of bipolar disorder; once the mania is eliminated depression does not usually follow

(Carlson, 2010, pp. 576).
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Electroconvulsive Therapy has been shown to be effective for people with severe bipolar disorder who have not been helped by other treaments

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)

Characterized by numerous periods of both depressive and hypomanic episodes
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)
Bipolar I
Bipolar II
Manic episodes last at least 7 days or are so severe that the person requires hospitalization. Depressive episodes lasting at least two weeks may also occur. Episodes of depression with features of mania are also possible
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)
Include depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016)
Other specified and unspecified Bipolar and related disorders characterized by bipolar disorder symptoms.
(Juvenile Bipolar Resarch Foundation, 2016)
( Gao, Jhaveri, Lei, Chaneb, Lingrel and El-Mallakh, 2013)
(Carlson, 2010, pp. 577)
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