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Educational Psychology: Theories and Theorists

5 educational theories and ideas/thoughts of theorists who created them.

Marsha Hawes

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Educational Psychology: Theories and Theorists

Theories and Theorists Theoretical Perspectives Social Cultural Theory Goal Theory Conclusion The contexts in which children grow up influence learning, thinking, and effective instructional practice. Children in different cultures think, learn and are taught differently because of different circumstances, environments and needs. Social Cognitive Theory People learn through modeling. They observe and imitate what they see other people do. Self-efficacy is important in determining how effective and motivated people are at performing tasks and reaching goals. Learners direct their behaviors towards specific types of outcomes or goals. These goals can be in many different areas. Examples of these areas include financial gain, performance, and academic achievement. Children go through sequential steps of growth and development. Cognitive development is influenced by environment, circumstances and hertitage.Children grow as learners and as part of their development, they model the actions and behaviors of those around them. The experiences and interactions learners have influence their self-efficacy. High self-efficacy can be a form of intrinsic motivation. Learners with intrinsic motivation benefit more than those with extrinsic motivation. Over time, the type of motivation and attributions can lead to the development of learned helplessness or mastery orientation. Cognitive Development Theory Development is characterized by a set of sequenced stages. Though each stage is different, it build upon the development which occurred in the previous stage. Prominent Theorists:

Jean Piaget
Lawrence Kohlberg Piaget's Stage Theory •Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old). The infant builds an understanding of himself and how things work.
•Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 4). The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and objects are named in simple ways.
•Concrete operations (ages 7 to 11). The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize,
•Formal operations (beginning at ages 11 to 15). Cognition reaches its final form. The person is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Precoventional, conventional, and postconventional are the three levels of moral development. There are six stages in the three levels of deveolpment.
1. Punishment- avoidance and obedience
2. Exchange of favors- People recognize that others also have needs.
3. Good boy/good girl- People make decisions based on what will please others.
4. Law and order- People look to society for information about right and wrong.
5. Social contract- Rules represent among people about appropriate behavior.
6. Universal ethical principle- Hypothetical stage. People adhere to a few abstract principles. Prominent Theorist

Lev Vygotsky Vygotsky's Theory Children learn through interactions with their surrounding culture and heritage. Teachers, parents and peers pass along ways of thinking that can direct development. Prominent Theorists

Albert Bandura
Dale Schunk
Barry Zimmerman Tips for Teaching Past successes influence self-efficacy. Positive reinforcement, encouraging words, and peers modeling the correct performance of tasks can help to boost self-efficacy. Students are more likely to pursue activities for which they have high self-efficacy. ProminentTheorists

Carol Dweck
Edwin Locke
Paul Pintrich Tips for Teaching Knowing a student's goals can help to determine if they are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation may be more beneficial than extrinsic motivation. By knowing the student's goals, a teacher may be able to teach a student by knowing what interests them. Attribution Theory Learners beliefs about things that happen to them influences their motivation. A learner's attributions or beliefs about what they do or do not do well, influences their optimism about success. Attributions effect actions learners take to be successful. Prominent Theorists

Bernard Weiner
Carol Dweck Tips for Teaching Locus (internal or external factors), stability (things that will or could change versus things that will stay the same) and controllabilty (things that can be be influenced or changed) are the three differences in attributions. As learners get older they attribute failure and success to ability instead of to effort. With time, learners develop an attributional style. Resource Ormrod, J. E. (2012). Essentials of Educational Psychology: Big Ideas to Guide Effective Teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
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