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Civil Rights Movement Timeline
Transcript of Civil Rights Movement Timeline
to August 17, 1965. It caused forty million dollars worth or
property damage, 34 deaths, over 1,000 injuries and around
4,000 arrests. The riot was spurred from the arrest of
Marquette Frye, a young African American women who was
pulled over for suspicion of drunk driving by a white
California Highway Patrolman. The strained tensions between
the police officers and the crowd of onlookers caused
violence. This violence started a large-scale riot in Watts, a
impoverished African-American neighborhood in South
Central LA. Rioters overturned cars and burned them, as
well as looting and damaging grocery, liquor, and
department stores. The riot brought over 14,000
California National Guard troops to the South LA area.
Order was restored on August 17th. Malcolm X Malcolm X, born May 19, 1925, was a civil rights leader and advocated for racial separatism rather than integration and believed violence was a legitimate form of self-defense. In 1952 he joined the Harlem-based Nation of Islam or the Black Muslim. Black Muslims, including Malcolm X, believed that whites were the enemy, integration was degrading and nonviolence was ineffective, the felt that African Americans should form a black state. During a pilgrimage to Mecca after he split from the Black Muslims, Malcolm X realized that hatred was the enemy not whites and nonviolent approaches might work to overcome racism. Unidentified attackers firebombed Malcolm X's New York house while he and his family were asleep inside on February 14, 1965. He was assassinated a week later on February 21, at a rally in New York City's Audubon Ballroom by a group of Black Muslim extremists. Chicago Movement The Chicago branch of the NAACP was started in 1910. The Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO) was founded in Chicago by the Chicago Urban League. The CCCO staged daily marches against segregationist school policies in the summer of 1965. From 1965 to 1966 civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. focused the Chicago Movement on open housing. It was the first large scale fair housing campaign in the nation, bringing in thousands to march and rally at places like Soldier Field and Chicago City Hall making it the most ambitious civil rights campaign in the North. The campaign brought the issue of equal opportunity in housing to the attention of not just the people of Chicago but of the country as well. fair housing campaign assassination Stokely Carmichael arrested Stokely Carmichael was a civil rights activist during the 1960s. He popularized the phrase “Black Power” and participated in the Civil Rights Movement in New York City, as well as attending sit-ins protesting discrimination in Virginia and South Carolina. Though he was offered to attend white colleges he denied them, attending Howard University, a historically black university, in D.C. where he majored in philosophy and became more involved in the civil rights movement. Carmichael joined the Nonviolent Action Group and connected with Students Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In his free time Carmichael joined the “freedom riders” which lead to his 19 day arrest in Jackson, Mississippi in the spring of 1961. As his participation in the movement continued he saw violence towards both the violent and nonviolent protesters, causing him to distance himself from nonviolent methods. In 1965, Carmichael replaced John Lewis as the president of the SNCC. He joined Martin Luther King, Jr. and many others in the famous “Freedom March”. And in 1968 the Black Panther Party made Carmichael their honorary prime minister, a post that he resigned from the following year rejecting Panther loyalty to white activists. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Assassination At 6:05 pm on Thursday April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr.
was assassinated on the balcony of his second floor room at the
Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. King died of a single shot
causing a severe wound to the lower right side of the street. The
shot originated across the street at the rear of a boarding house on
South Main Street. The shooter was a 40 year old escaped fugitive
named James Earl Ray who later confessed to the crime and was given a jail
sentence of 99 years. Doctors pronounced King dead at 7:05 pm. April 7 was a
nation day of mourning called for by President Johnson. For the next few
days many public buildings and businesses were closed; events like the
Academy Awards and sporting events were postponed. Thousands participated in a
march honoring King and supporting the sanitation workers on April 8,
attendees included King’s wife Coretta. The funeral was held the next day in Atlanta at
Ebenezer Baptist Church, significant attendees included Vice President Humphrey
and Jackie Kennedy. King’s coffin was pulled through the streets of Atlanta by two mules
followed by over 100,000 people. His body was initially buried at the South-View Cemetery but
was later moved to a crypt next to the Ebenezer Church at the King Center. King’s death prompted an outbreak of racial violence resulting in more than 40 deaths nation wide and extensive property damage in over 100 cities. Marin Luther King, Jr. said he wanted to be remembered after death in these words, ‘‘I’d like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to give his life serving others.” Black Panthers Huey Percy Newton and Bobby Seale founded
the Black Panthers were founded in 1966 in California. They did not believe in the nonviolent methods of people like Martin Luther King, Jr. and were a very violent group. Though they were considered an African-American party, they willing spoke out for all oppressed minorities. The Black Panthers preached from revolutionary war using violence to get what they wanted. A revolutionary war against authority during the Vietnam War alerted the FBI to their activities and the FBI was successful in destroying their movement. The Black Panthers had four desires : equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights. They also had a 10 point plan to achieve these goals. 10 Point Plan to get its desired goals.
1. Freedom: the power to determine the destiny of the Black and oppressed communities
2. Full Employment: give every person employment or guaranteed income
3. End to robbery of Black communities: the overdue debt of forty acres and two mules as promised to ex-slaves during reconstruction.
4. Decent housing fit for shelter of human beings: the land should be made into cooperatives so that the people can build.
5. Education for the people: that teaches the true history of Blacks and their role in present day society.
6. Free health care: health facilities which will develop preventive medical programs
7. End to police brutality and murder of Black people and other people of color and oppressed people.
8. End to all wars of aggression: the various conflicts which exist stem directly from the US ruling circle
9. Freedom for all political prisoners: trials by juries that represent our peers.
10. Land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace and community control of modern industry. The Sit-in Movement On February 1, 1960, four African American college students went to a “whites only” lunch counter and ordered coffee. Service was refused, but the students waited. This started a trend. African Americans who took part in the Sit-in Movement would sit and wait patiently to be served, and would sometimes be pelted with food or physically attacked. However, the students did not want to show violence back, and would still remain. When police came to arrest the demonstrators, a new line of students would come to replace the seats. Slowly, southern restaurants began to abandon their segregation policies. Little Rock School Crisis In an effort to try and lessen segregation, nine African American students were chosen to be able to attend Little Rock Central High School, which was an all white school. On September 3, 1957, the students arrived at school and faced physical threats, screams, and racial slurs. The Arkansas government intervened, ordering the Arkansas National Guard to keep the nine black students from entering the school. Then on September 20, 1957, a judge ordered the governor to remove the National Guard from the school, and on September 23, 1957, the “Little Rock Nine” returned. SCLC The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) came about shortly after the Montgomery Bus Boycott. On January 10-11, 1957, the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) and other protest groups met to form a regional organization and protest activities across the south. The objective was to coordinate and assist local organizations working for the equality of African Americans. Montgomery Bus Boycott On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested. All black people were supposed to sit at the back of the bus, or surrender their seats for white people. Parks refused to give up her seat and did not move. In turn, the police were called and Parks was arrested. To fight back against the buses, King suggested boycotting the bus company. On December 5th, 1955, African Americans refused to use buses. Instead, they would walk, carpool, and even use mules. Whites fought back with terrorism and harassment, and eventually, the bus issue was taken to court. Then on November 13, 1956, the court declared Alabama’s bus segregation to be illegal. Martin Luther King Jr. "I Have a Dream" speech Martin Luther King was an active member of the NAACP, and in 1955, he began a bus boycott which lasted 382 days. During the boycott, King was arrested, abused, and even had his home bombed. Then from 1957-1968, King traveled over 6 million miles, spoke over 2,500 times, and led a massive protest in Birmingham Alabama. Then on August 28, 1963, King and 250,000 others led a peaceful march on Washington DC, and King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Linda Brown Linda Brown was an African American child who lived only seven blocks away from an all white school. Unfortunately, she was forced to walk a mile to a bus stop to then be transported to a “black only” school. Her parents and others were trying to enroll their children in a “white” school, but were turned down. The parents then filed a suit against the Topeka board of Education. After, Linda’s father went to NAACP to try and get Linda into better and wealthier “white” schools, but was turned down there as well. In turn, NAACP took the case to Supreme Court, and on May 17, 1954, the court declared that school segregation in school. Thurgood Marshall Brown vs. Board of Education Thurgood Marshall played a very important role in the civil rights revolution as he was the man who was finally able to put a stop to legal segregation in the United States. In 1954, Marshall won the court case of Brown vs. Board of Education, which ended the legal separation of black and white children in school. This helped to spark the civil rights movement, and promoted affirmative action as the remedy for the remaining damage from the history of slavery and racial bias. Although his efforts helped to prevent legal segregation, Marshall himself was still denied entry into the University of Maryland Law School because of his color. Southern Christian Leadership Conference "We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.
We cannot turn back.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today! " ("I Have a Dream" MLK) "...people wanted to continue that
boycott. They had been touched by
the persecution, the humiliation...
they voted for it unanimously..."
—Jo Ann Robinson, boycott organizer Rosa Parks Born on Feb 4th 1913, died Oct 24, 2005, Rosa Parks was an unknown seamstress in Montgomery and she refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger on December 1, 1955. She was arrested and fined for violating a city ordinance. Parks was an inspiration to freedom, loving people and worked with the NAACP. The bus incident led to the formation of the Montgomery Improvement Association. arrested NAACP Plessy vs. Ferguson “separate but equal” was struck down National Association for the Advancement of Colored People In 1909 the NAACP commenced what has become its legacy of fighting legal battles to win social justice for African-Americans. Battles were fought under the leadership of Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall. A legal campaign to end segregation and the NAACP was involved in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the “white” car of the East Louisiana Railroad. The term Creole of Color referred to a black person who have ancestors to Louisiana settlers. The Separate Car Act was passed in 1892. Some believed whites and blacks should be considered “equal”, but it wasn’t until 1954 that “separate but equal” was struck down. “Jim Crow” Laws overturned Southern segregationalists increasingly turned their state legislatures to enact discriminatory legislation. The laws didn’t end up surviving. This was considered “all deliberate speed” and met with virtual hostility who turned to violence for resisting desegregation process. De Facto Segregation In 1963 eleven schools had De Facto segregation and over 60 percent of the schools population was Negros. Teachers left because of turnover of De Facto segregation. Some believed separate schools would help with education process. Started by four college kids at the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College who were black. They went to the lunch counter and were asked to be served. They sat at a segregated table which created a large crowd the next day. Because of this, more organized sit-ins across campuses Brown vs. Board of Education There were racial segregation in public schools. One example was Linda Brown who was black and the principal from the white school refused to enroll her. The NAACP became involved in the issue and tried to stop it. The Board of Education believed that segregated schools prepared black children for the segregation they would face in adulthood. SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee or SNCC, was formed in 1960 by a group of black students in North Carolina. It ran through 1966. It was created on the ampus of Shaw University in Raleigh. The goal of the SNCC was to fight white oppression and establish non-violence. The SNCC opened the door for the feminist movement as it established many principles that were used by the feminists. Freedom Riders The freedom riders began their expedition in May of 1961. The goal of the freedom riders was to test and challenge segregated travel facilities throughout the South. They began in Washington D.C. It was very difficult for the freedom riders as there was strong resistance in the south. On May 14, 1961, one of the buses was firebombed in Alabama. This caused for the Freedom Riders to come to an end later in May 1961. The freedom riders found we later arrested and jailed on May 24, 1961. Selma March The Selma march was the beginning of a series of 3 Marches. The Selma Marches marked the political and emotional peak of the American Civil Rights Movement, and grew out of the voting rights movement in Alabama. The first, March 7, 1965, was called “Bloody Sunday”, which was a march from Selma, Alabama to Montgomery. This march was to protest the death of Jimme Lee Jackson and unfair voter registration practices. The next march was Tuesday, March 9, 1965, or “Turnaround Tuesday”. A telegram was sent around the country from the marchers asking ministers to come to Selma and march with them. During the final march, Dr. King, one of the leaders, and his marches prayed and walked back to the church as a decision to end the march. It was decided to be discontinued because Dr. King did not want any more violence. Black Power In the 1960’s, African Americans were fighting for their rights. The term “Black Power” is associated with the civil rights leader Stokeley Carmichael, and was also a rallying phrase. “Black Power” is also considered a cry against the whites who held all the resources in a white-dominated society. It was mostly used as a chant by African Americans that did not want integration. Civil Rights Act The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a major step taken by the United States in ending discrimination. It forbade discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race in hiring, promoting, and firing. The Civil Rights Act was passed by Lyndon B. Johnson during his second term in office as the President of the United States, and this act led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Voting Rights Act The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was a huge step to ending conflict between African Americans and whites. It grew out of public protest and private political negotiation. It was signed by Congress and the President of the United States into law on August 6 of the year 1965. The Voting Rights Act banned discriminatory literacy tests the were required for African Americans to be able to vote, but not whites. It also expanded voting rights for non-english speaking Americans, and the government was now able to overlook voter registration. Kerner Commission The Kerner Commission was issued on February 29, of 1968. 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