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SLCO100 Assignment 2 - Group 3

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Sarah Fry

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of SLCO100 Assignment 2 - Group 3

Lifestyle Medicinal The Oxford Dictionary defines medicine as the science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. There are plenty of categories for medicinal drugs ranging from antibiotics, mood stabilizers, hormone replacements, stimulants, tranquilizers and more [12]. Performance Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in Australia [1]. The current law in Australia means it is illegal to use, posses, grow or sell cannabis in Australia. Depending upon the amount of prohibited substances found on a person, they could be considered to be using the drugs to supply to another person, or trafficking. It is still under debate whether cannabis use acerbates mental illness, such as schizophrenia, and to date no solid causal link has been identified, however researchers argue that while acute psychotic experiences can be linked to cannabis use, the nature of the connection to schizophrenia inevitably remains much less certain [7]. [1] Wikipedia, © 2013, Cannabis in Australia, viewed May 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_in_Australia
[2] Find Law Australia, © 2000 – 2013, What You Need to Know About Australia’s Drug Laws, viewed May 2013, http://www.findlaw.com.au/articles/4276/what-you-need-to-know-about-australias-drug-laws.aspx
[3] Wikipedia, © 2013, Cannabis in Australia, viewed May 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_in_Australia
[4] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, © 2013, National Drugs Strategy Household Surveys (NDSHS) – 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey Report, viewed May 2013, http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=32212254712
[5] Wikipedia, © 2013, Cannabis Cultivation, viewed May 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabis_cultivation
[6] Wikipedia, © 2013, Synthetic Cannabis, viewed May 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_cannabis
[7] Nauert, Rick, 14 January 2013, Marijuana Use and Psychosis: The Debate Continues, PsychCentral, viwed May 2013, http://psychcentral.com/news/2013/01/14/marijuana-use-and-psychosis-the-debate-continues/50364.html
[8] Cancer Council NSW, 4 October 2012, Medical Use of Cannabis – Position Statement, viewed May 2013, http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/1978/news-media/get-the-facts/our-position-statements/cancer-council-new-south-wales-medical-use-of-marijuana-fact-sheet/?pp=41666
[9] Holmes, D. (2010). Abnormal, clinical and forensic psychology. London, England: Pearson Education Inc.
[10] Parrot, A., Morinan, A., Moss, M., & Scholey, A. (2004). Understanding drugs and behaviour. London, England: Wiley.
[11] Wickens, A. (2009). Introduction to biopsychology (3rd ed). Essex, England. Pearson Education Inc.
[12] Oxford University Press 2013, Dictionary, Electric Studios, Viewed 18 May 2013, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/medicine?q=medicine
[13] Wikipedia 2013, “History of Medicine”, Wikipedia, Viewed 18 May 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_medicine
[14] US Department Of Labor 2013, “Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing”, Career Cornerstone Center, Viewed 17 May 2013http://www.careercornerstone.org/industries/pharmmanu.htm
[15] Anapol Schwartz 2013, Morphine: Its History & Uses, Anapol Schwartz, viewed 18 May 2013, http://www.anapolschwartz.com/practices/ethex-morphine-recall/morphine-history-uses.asp
[16] NIMBIN TELEVISION. (2011). Marijuana and Methamphetamine, Hooked: Addiction and Illegal Drugs. Episode 1.[Online Video]. 02 May. Available from: [Accessed: 19/05/2012].
[17]T. Hildebrandta, J. W. Langenbucherb, Et Al, 2011. Development and validation of the appearance and performance enhancing drug use schedule. Addictive Behaviours, [Online]. Volume 36, Issue 10, 949-958. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/science/article/pii/S0306460311001547 [Accessed 19 May 2013].
[18] rosaryfilms. (2008). Meth Educational Video. [Online Video]. 27 June. Available from: [Accessed: 19 May 2013].
[19] NationalGeographic. (2008). Most Dangerous Drug. [Online Video]. 25 June 2008. Available from: [Accessed: 19 May 2013].
[20] Allhoff, Lin, Moor, and Weckert. 2009. Ethics of Human Enhancement: 25 Questions & Answers. [ONLINE] Available at: http://ethics.calpoly.edu/NSF_report.pdf. [Accessed 19 May 13].
[21] Steve Morgan, Paul Grootendorst, Joel Lexchin, Colleen Cunningham, Devon Greyson, The cost of drug development: A systematic review, Health Policy, Volume 100, Issue 1, April 2011, Pages 4-17. [ONLINE]Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168851010003659 [Acessed May 19th].
[22] Gallup, (2012), Drug Declared Illegal [ONLINE]. Available at: http://sas-origin.onstreammedia.com/origin/gallupinc/GallupSpaces/Production/Cms/POLL/pqq7ajnizuabz_ajup5bga.gif [Accessed 19 May 13]. Chris Eldred
Sarah Fry
Kate Merrin
Maria Mihas SLCO100 Assignment Two Group 3 DRUGS Recreational Cannabis was first seen in Australia as hemp seeds which were transported with the First Fleet, and during the 19th century cannabis use was widespread, and actively supported by the government [3].

Post signing of the Geneva Convention, cannabis use was restricted to medicinal and scientific purposes, and by 1938, the use of cannabis was made illegal throughout Australia [3]. In the 2010 National Drugs Strategy Household Survey, 10% of the population aged over 14 admitted to having used cannabis, which was in decline from the previous decade [4] Cannabis is cultivated from the flowering plant cannabis, and needs water, warmth and light to flourish [5]. Around 2004, manufacturers also started producing synthetic cannabis, which is produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabis [6]. The ingredients of synthetic cannabis are a mixture of synthetic cannanoid ingredients, which in themselves are not illegal, such as cannabicyclohexanol, which in turn classifies synthetic cannabis as a designer drug [6]. To date, synthetic cannabis is only illegal in WA and NSW [6]. The amount of what is considered to be a trafficable amount varies from state to state. For example, a trafficable amount in Victoria is 250 grams whilst in New South Wales it is 300 grams [2]. The Cancer Council of New South Wales released a position statement which indicates that medicinal cannabis may be of benefit for patients undergoing cancer treatment, where conventional treatments are unsuccessful [8]. A survey in 2010 conducted by the National Drugs Strategy Household Survey indicated that about two-thirds of people surveyed supported the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes [4] This indicates that further research is required to identify the causal link between psychosis and cannabis use, as an argument to provide harsher penalties for the manufacturing and selling of cannabis, at the same time the law in Australia on cannabis use for medicinal purposes should come under review as supported by the majority of the Australian population. When one hears the words, “addict” or “substance abuse” they will generally associate this notion with a decaying, lifeless heroin addict – not just an individual addicted to tobacco or binge drinking [9]. According to Holmes (1998) the top two most medically damaging substances of abuse are tobacco and alcohol. If we were to look at all the deaths and serious illnesses caused from illegal drug abuse, they would pale in significance when compared to those directly resulting from tobacco use [9]. It is estimated that annually in America, tobacco smoking kills 434, 000 people, which exceeds the deaths caused by any other drug. Furthermore, the abnormal consumption of alcohol kills 125, 000 [11]. Nicotine is the addictive stimulant found in the tobacco plant, nicotiana tabacum, which is responsible for controlling many users’ lives [9]. This plant was formerly used by the indigenous inhabitants of America before it was exposed to the rest of the world by Spanish conquistadores [11]. Approximately 1mg of Nicotine is absorbed in the body with every cigarette smoked, but if 60mg of this highly toxic and deadly psychoactive ingredient were injected directly into a vein, it is enough to kill an individual [11]. The World Health Organisation states that there are 1.1 billion smokers in the world and consequently there are 6000 billion cigarettes smoked annually [11]. The active ingredient in Alcohol is Ethyl alcohol, the strength of which is indicated by the alcoholic content found on all alcoholic bottles or cans [11]. Alcohol has been ingrained in human culture since the time of the Mesopotamians [11]. It serves as a central nervous system narcotic and is also associated with relaxation and anxiety control. Before the immergence of modern medicine, Ethyl Alcohol was also used as a form aesthetic in early surgeries [11]. Due to the accessibility and availability of alcohol, society is able to readily abuse this substance, with one-third of adults under 25 years of age drinking more than double the recommended limit [11]. These two highly addictive and abused substances have many detrimental effects on society, individuals and families. Money is one such effect. With today’s strategic raise in tobacco prices to try and discourage the buyer, the average “20 a day” smoker will spend over $57, 414 over a 20 year period [11]. Passive smokers are also affected by the abuse of this substance, as their health is also at risk with 8 out of 10 cases of lung cancer being tobacco related [11]. The suppression of the central nervous system during the consumption of alcohol can eliminate social inhibitions which consequently causes an individual to act with a lack of judgement and engage in behaviours which generally break society’s norms [11]. In July 2007, the government acknowledged the detrimental and irreversible effects of tobacco abuse by placing a ban on smoking in all indoor public places including night clubs, shopping centres and pubs [11]. The production of medicine is a lengthy process, beginning with scientists testing new chemical compounds that potentially will have the ability to prevent, combat, or alleviate symptoms of diseases or other health problems. A process called ‘screening’ is used to determine if the antibiotic is effective. Drug screening is a laborious and costly process which only 1 in every 5000-10,000 compounds screened eventually becomes an approved drug. [13] Medicinal drugs are widely accepted but only after safe screenings and tests have been executed and verified. The pain relief drug Morphine has a classification described as a "Schedule II" drug in the United States. That means that it has an important medical purpose but that there is a high potential for abuse [14]. Therefore, this is the reason this particular drug has the restriction of distribution and manufacturing limits [14]. Medicine has revolutionized and improved society in many ways, not only in treating medical problems but in creating a better quality of life by preventing illness and disease. The improvement of medicine and its associated components has created a more efficient way of living, in helping treating, diagnosing and preventing disease and infection. The Egyptians and Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis and medical examination. During the Renaissance Period, understanding of anatomy improved and the microscope was invented, furthering the capability to understand microorganisms. The germ theory of disease in the 19th century led to cures for many infectious diseases. In the 20th century, advanced research centers were opened to connect with the major hospitals. New biological treatment was introduced during the mid 20th century to create such products as antibiotics. All these advancements throughout history such as the development in chemistry, genetics and lab technology led to the most recent of modern medicine [15]. Performance enhancing drugs come with the prevalance to inhibit a change in ones appearance and ability. This causes a negative outcome psychologically, when the person has stopped using the substance they feel below par [17]. The other negative outcome is the withdrawal symptoms, these can bring an individual to partake aggressive actions to fulfill the void created [16]. The use of enhancers has the chance of being abused, which is most known for causing death or sickness [21]. Knowledge of the dangers surrounding performing drugs are the key reason for their condemnation. These dangers include damage of the nervous system, which affect the basic functionality of a person [19]. Other dangers include organ damage which effects the user in a more subtle fashion. The use of drugs has been noted since the ancient times with multiple uses. These uses include medicinal properties, structural properties as well as recreational properties [16]. Production of drugs results in a high financial cost to society. The cost involves the testing prior to releasing the product, and the treatment of any side effects both short term and long term [17]. The other cost, the personal cost, is the loss of family. Another issue in production of drugs is the toxic waste which follows. For example, cocaine production in Columbia requires releasing highly toxic gasses into the atmosphere [19]. Performance enhancing drugs have always been regarded as controversial. When used for medicinal/prescribed purposes, such as cortisone injections for joint inflammation, the law does not get involved. When used in recreational or profitable circumstances the legal system is quite head strong on action. Legal policies in regards to drug use control is quite common, for example, the "anti-doping' policy in sports. References
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