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Transcript of China
China From Qing Dynasty Through 1911 Revolution
The Qing Dynasty
Rule of the Qing
By Brooke Stanley, Sabine Gross, and Elizabeth Truchan
The Westerners want more trade ports
1839- Lin Zexu
Failed Macartney mission
Lord Anherst arrives in China
1839-1842 and 1856-1858
The Opium Wars
The Taiping Rebellion
Changing Roles of Women
Effects of Industrialization
The Age Of Imperialism Throughout
Also known as the Xinhai Revolution
Last great dynasty to rule the area
Before was Ming
Collapsed from rival groups fighting and splitting up
Lost Mandate of Heaven --> Rebellions, attacks
Ruled by the Manchus
Jurchens of the Jin Empire
Tribal leader Nurhaci in 1582 started to conquer other tribes
1625 conquered Ming city Shenyang and made capital
Attacked Ming Empire; absorbed bureaucrats
Great Ming Empire
Conquered Beiging in 1644
Origins of the Dynasty
Lasted for 268 years; height in 1800
Forbidden City in Beijing is where Emperors lived
Dominated by two great monarchs
Kangxi Emperor: 1662-1722
Qianlong Emperor: 1736-1796
Peace, prosperity, secure borders, achievements
New American crops and fast-ripening rice --> massive population growth
Continued economic developments
<-- Capital of Beijing
The last dynasty of 2000 years
Corruption of officials
Doubled from 1550-1800
400 million by 1800
Western power pressures
Ended China's imperial period and Qing dynasty in 1911
Breaks original dynasty ending trend
No more dynasties!
Fall of the Qing
Impact of Imperialism
A lot of foreign imperialism and pressure
Early Jesuit missionaries in 1600s
Advisor to first Qing emperor
Bans on Christian activity
Age of Exploration movement
Portuguese traders in 1500s at ports
British East India Company
Japan was "Westernized"
1757 Qing canton system
Foreign companies couldn't trade directly with Chinese people
Failed; foreign trading expanded
Foreign imperialism challenged Qing rule
-After the Scientific Revolution and industrialization in Europe, Britain was superior in technology, government, and military.
-However, Britain couldn't solidify trade with China because they had nothing to sell them, as the Chinese regarded Europeans as "barbarians."
-British found opium in India.
-They discovered that Chinese people would trade their porcelain, tea, and silk for Indian opium.
-Instead of paying in gold and silver, they could pay the Chinese in opium.
-By the 1820s, China was exporting luxury goods but also paying a lot of silver for opium.
-Once the people discovered its addictive effects, the government tried to protest the trade because of the health concerns.
-Qing emperors had always banned opium traffic, but no one enforced the rule.
-Government officials filed protests with the East India Company, and then with the British government.
-After receiving no results, the government enforced their ban on opium trade and sent opium dealers to islands.
-Lin Zexu was sent to block European trading areas as illegal trade continued.
-The British believed that Lin's actions had violated their right to free trade.
-In 1839, the British declared war on China.
-Since China was so far behind in war technology, Chinese war ships were routed by British gun boats.
-Chinese soldiers on land fought with swords, knives, spears, and old muskets, while British soldiers wielded the newest, most accurate rifles.
-The British sent steam-powered gunboats up the Yangzi River and the Grand Canal and captured practically all of the territory the whole way.
-The Chinese surrendered and the Treaty of Nanjing was created in 1842.
-A second conflict broke out in the 1850s.
-After this second conflict (and the Treaty of Tianjin), the British were essentially able to control trade with China with little to no resistance from Chinese officials.
-A long drought and high unemployment made the people unhappy.
-Chinese attacked foreign residents (they didn't want Christians or foreigners in China).
-Foreigners were rescued by expeditionary forces in 1900.
-Foreign troops destroyed temples.
-Foreign troops also forced the Chinese government to pay for their expenses.
Using the following documents, compare and contrast the views on the Chinese government with the views on the Chinese social system in Qing China; analyze how the views change or stay the same throughout Qing China until the 1911 Revolution. Identify an additional type of document and explain how it would help in assessing these views.
Document 1: Confucian Analects
Document 2: Reform Edict of the Qing Imperial Government
Document 3: What Women Should Know About Communism
Document 4: Painting of Officials Before Manchu Emperor
Document 5: Chinese Print of Imperial Forces Recapturing City of Nanjing
Document 6: Memorial to Emperor Guangxu
Document 7: An Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen
Document 8: The Sacred Edict
Document 9: The Three People’s Principles and the Future of the Chinese People
1. Social | 500 BC | man | keep
2. Government | 1901 | government | change some
3. Social or Government | 1884-1917 | woman, change everything
4. Government | 1644-1911 | unknown | keep
5. Government | around 1864 | unknown | change everything
6. Government | 1898 | man | change some
7. Social | 1904 | woman | change some
8. Social | 1670 | government | keep
9. Government | 1906 | man | change everything
Social or Government
-states whether document is about social system or the government
-states whether the document came from the government, a man, a woman, or unknown
-states whether the document is calling for change, and to what degree
-keep = keep it as it is
-change some = some things should be change, but the system should not be uprooted completely
-change everything = the system needs to be uprooted, almost everything needs to be changed.
As you can see, documents can be grouped by chronology, who created it (government/man/woman/unknown), and the views about change (keep it as it is/change some things/change everything). It is easy to see what documents go in what groupings with the above information.
-Woman who wrote this was bitter at social system. She is evidently somewhat poor because she wouldn't be complaining about the rich seizing land if she was rich. She is angry at the system because it is bad for her (and many others).
-Someone who favored the emperor most likely created this as it shows the emperor in a powerful and positive light.
-It is likely that the government favored this painter as he portrayed the emperor in a positive light.
-On the oher hand, the painter may have portrayed the emperor this way out of fear.
A woman's perspective in the early Qing dynasty
What thought of government that was suppressing rights
Thought about suppressed rights/government wanting to keep social system same?
Would show if those directly oppressed by the government socially would have supported the government politically
A peasant man
On the social system
Laws and social ideals that restrict him
Would show how the social system already in place in the early Qing dynasty, if that is when the document would be written, affected the individual
Or near the 1911 revolution to see if any of the social system aspects regarding class were changing along with the government
Views on the changes (or staticity) of the social system
How Answer Question and Explanations
-This painting shows the imperial forces recapturing Nanjing. The person who created this may have favored the government as they chose to show the imperial forces recapturing Nanjing, not the rebel forces capturing Nanjing. Again, they may have been portraying the government as strong out of fear.
-The author of this memorial to the emperor spoke in a very civil and respectful tone. While providing information as to why change was necessary, he also called the emperor brilliant.
-He may be starstruck by writing to the emperor, but he may have also been respectful in order to protect himself from exile, death, etc.
Aftermath of the Revolution
-Britain became very industrialized and had the latest technology.
-China, on the other hand, stuck to its old technology.
-When Britain and China had conflicts and wars over opium trade, Britain annihilated China with its fancy technlogy.
-At the end of the first opium war, the Treaty of Nanjing was established.
Before the Qing
During the Qing
After the Qing
Always had been oppressed
Confuciansim and family values added to the oppression of women
Treaty of Nanjing:
-Open five coastal ports to British trade
-Limit tariffs on the imported British goods
-Exempt British from certain laws in China
-Give Hong Kong to Britain
-After the second opium conflict, Chinese signed the Treaty of Tianjin
Changes in Chinese dress
Foot binding forbidden, although hard to enforce
Start speaking out
Around the world women are starting to gain rights
China follows even though suppression of this is lasting all over the world into today
Still not great
Treaty of Tianjin
Chinese agreed to:
-Legalize the opium trade
-Open additional ports to foreign trade
-Give the peninsula of Kowloon to the British
-Give northern territories to Russia
-Because Britain was so industrialized and China was not, China essentially had to sign an unfair treaty because it was crushed and had to surrender to the British. Thus, the British had all of the bargaining power.
Continued to improve
Rise of communism --> Rise of status
Communist doctrine: All workers were equal
Property owning got rid of women disadvantage
88% literacy rate
Most changes after Communist revolution of 1949
Trend begins before
More had real jobs
Foot binding banned in 1912
Done in secret afterwards
Still needed improvement but getting there
Compared to world
Behind but coming
Other parts of the world: women speaking out
Yuan Shikai named himself as emperor
Death in 1917 caused a decade of warlordism
European education and social life
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