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Enlightenment Thinkers and Their Ideas

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on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of Enlightenment Thinkers and Their Ideas

Enlightenment Thinkers and Their Ideas
John Locke
Purpose of government is to protect natural rights
if government does not do that, then citizens have a right to overthrow the government
government power comes from the consent of the people
Philosophes
Five concepts made up the core of their beliefs: 1. Reason, 2. Nature, 3. Happiness, 4. Progress, 5. Liberty.
Enlightenment
An 18th-Century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights come from the ideas of the thinkers during the Enlightenment.
Voltaire
Fought for tolerance in France of reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. Put in jail three times and fled from France for his beliefs.
Montesquieu
proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of government; also promoted the idea of check and balances.
Rousseau
Believed that the early men were free to be themselves and civilization forced people to obey the unjust laws of others. Believed in a direct democracy, which is a government that is formed freely to the people and guided by the general will of society
Beccaria
Promoted criminal justice and the abolishment of torture and capital punishment
believe laws existed to preserve justice and not to avenge crimes. Wanted an end to torturing witnesses and suspects, irregular proceedings in trials, and cruel punishments.
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