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Performance-Enhancing Drugs

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Lawrence Grimm

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Evidence of amphetamine use in 1960 Rome Olympics
In 1968 the Olympic Committee established international testing rules
Problems with cocaine and amphetamines in American football starting in the 1960s.
History of Drug Use in Sports
Early Greek Olympians used herbs and mushrooms that acted as stimulants.
The Romans gave mixed in herbs with stimulant properties into the feed of their horses to them them run faster.
Ancient Aztecs used cactus based stimulants resembling strychnine.

Treatment Recommendations
Hormone regulators to get the bodies hormone chemistry back to normal
Gradual reduction of steroid use
Anti-depressants to treat symptoms of depression
Administration of analgesics for headaches, muscle and joint pains
Street Names
Gym Candy
Balls and Bulls
Weight Trainers
Winny (Winstrol)
Drug Administration
intramuscular injection
subcutaneous injection
pellet implantation under the skin
gels and patches on the skin
Performance-Enhancing Drugs
History of Drug Use in Sports Continued.
History of Drug Use in Sports Continued.
During the 1800s boxers were reported to have used strychnine in tablet form. Strychnine was generally used as rat poison but in low doses it can act as a stimulant.
In 1904 Thomas Hicks won the marathon in the St. Louis Olympics. He collapsed and had to be resuscitated. It turned out that he had a mixture of brandy and strychnine in his system.

History of Drug Use in Sports Continued.
Later on amphetamines became more available so strychnine use declined but it was still reportedly used up into the 1960s.
Cocaine was used in cycling in the 1800s in the form of Mariani's Coca Wine (which was used by the French cycling team). Called "wine for athletes."
Amphetamines were used during the 1940s and 50s by soccer players in England and Italy

Other Forms and Other Methods
cocaine can be used as performance enhancing and can be snorted through the nasal membranes
Drug Class
Schedule 2
cocaine, amphetamines
Schedule 3
anabolic steroids
How Steroids Effect the Body
Androgenic Effects (masculinizing actions):
Initial growth of penis and male sex glands
Deepening of voice
Increased facial hair
Anabolic Effects:
Increased muscle mass
Increased size of internal organs
Increased calcium in bones
Control of fat distribution
Increased protein synthesis
Men may develop:

Prominent breasts
Shrunken testicles
Women may develop:

A deeper voice
An enlarged clitoris
Increased body hair
Infrequent or absent periods
Both men and women may experience:
Severe acne
Increased risk of tendinitis/tendon rupture
Liver abnormalities and tumors
Increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol)
Decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol)
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Heart and circulatory problems
Prostate gland enlargement
Aggressive behaviors (commonly referred to as "roid rage")
Psychiatric disorders, such as depression
Drug dependence
Infections or diseases such as HIV or hepatitis if injecting the drugs
Inhibited growth and development
Muscle-wasting disease
Withdrawal symptoms can include...
mood swings
loss of appetite
reduced sex drive
extreme depression
suicidal tendencies if immediate stopping of using substance
Human Growth Hormone
Responsible for some types of giantism.
Potentially increase the height and weight of of an individual to gigantic proportions.
Excessive production of this hormone can create giants well over 7 feet tall.
As a result these giants tend to die at a early age because their internal organs continue to grow.
What Are Performance Enhancing Drugs?
Anabolic Steroids
Human Growth Hormone
Beta2-adrenergic agonist






Drugs, Society, & Human Behavior Book
1. When did the International Olympic Committee start drug testing?
2. What are possible side effects of taking anabolic steroids?
3. What is the common term used to describe the aggression associated with steroids?
4. What drug schedule are anabolic steroids classified in?
5. How is the side effect of depression from using anabolic steroids treated?
6. Which type of performance enhancing drug is responsible for some types of giantism?
7. (True or False) Men may develop shrunken testicles as a result of taking steroids.
8. (True or False) One withdrawal symptom from performance enhancing drugs, especially steroids, is an increase in sex drive.
9. What is one common manner in which drug users administer performance enhancing drugs?
10. Which historic performance enhancing drug was generally used as a rat poison, but in low doses can act as a stimulant.
11. (True or false) Administering a few doses of this hormone (HGH) at the right time can produce a more controllable increase in the human body size.
12. What is one widely used substance among bodybuilders?
13. What treatment recommendation is used to get the bodies hormone chemistry back to normal?
14. (True or False) Women who use performance enhancing drugs may have infrequent or absent periods.
15. What is a common street name for performance enhancing drugs?
16. How does erythropoietin improve performance?
17. (True or False) Abruptly stopping steroid use is the best way to quit.
18. What are synthetic steroids that have been illicitly created to be undetectable by current drug tests called?
19. Which one of the following is not constidered a stimulant: ampethamines, caffeine, androstenedione, or ephedrine
20. What is the main anabolic steroid hormone produced by the body?
1. 1968
2. increase in acne and aggressiveness
3. "roid rage"
4. Schedule 3
5. anti-depressants
6. Human Growth Hormone
7. True
8. False
9. Intramuscular or subcutaneous injection
10. Strychnine
11. True
12. Creatine
13. Hormone Regulators
14. True
15. Roids or Juice
16. Increases red blood cells which improves oxygen movement to muscles
17. False
18. Designer steroids
19. Androstenedione
20. Testosterone
Testing in Sports
In 1986 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) adopted a list of more than 3,000 brand-name drugs containing banned substances.
BALCO(June 2003)
famous investigation into a previously unknown steroid that didn't show up on tests
Performance enhancing drugs have been proven to have addictive qualities. Serious withdrawal symptoms can occur if usage of anabolic steroids is stopped immediately.
Amphetamine mixed salts (Adderall)
medically used for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy
Used by students as a study and test taking aid.
improves performance on effortful and tedious tasks.
Used by athletes to help improve stamina, physical strength, acceleration, endurance, while reducing reaction time
PEDs and Education
Dependence Issues
Long term abuse can lead to impacts on mood and behavior
Persistance in using despite physical problems/ negative effects on social relationships
Steroid use cannot be stopped abruptly; tapering the drug gives the adrenal glands time to return to their normal patterns of secretion
Change your body's natural balance of fluids and electrolytes; can lead to dehydration
Helps athletes lose weight to compete in a lighter weight class
Helps athletes pass drug tests by diluting their urine; a "masking" agent
Anabolic Steroids
Used to increase muscle mass and strength
Main anabolic steroid hormone produced by your body is testosterone
Steroids are usually synthetic forms of testosterone
Designer steroids- synthetic steroids that have been illicitly created to be undetectable by current drug tests
Andro is produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes; a hormone that is normally converted to testosterone in men and women
Claims to allow athletes to train harder/ recover quicker
Studies prove that andro neither increases testosterone nor improves muscle strength but rather converts quickly into estrogen.
Includes: amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine/ energy drinks, and ephedrine in cold remedies, and strychnine
Athletes use stimulants to stimulate the central nervous system, increasing heart rate and blood pressure
type of hormone used to treat anemia in people with severe kidney disease
increases production of red blood cells and hemoglobin, resulting in improved movement of oxygen to the muscles
commonly used by endurance athletes.
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