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Prehistory in Spain

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by

Lourdes Rodriguez

on 24 February 2013

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Transcript of Prehistory in Spain

PREHISTORY IN SPAIN HUMAN BEINGS Homo antecessor is the oldest inhabitant in Europe. Their fossils were found in Atapuerca, Burgos. They lived there about 800.000 years ago. Homo Neanderthalensis and Homo Sapiens probably lived in the Iberian peninsula together for a while, but Homo Neanderthalensis disappeared and Homo Sapiens became the only inhabitant on the planet. PALEOLITHIC 800000 B.C. - 6000 B.C. People in the Iberian peninsula were NOMADS and they lived inside caves or when the weather was not so cold, in outdoor shelters. They were PREDATORS so they were hunters and fishers. They also gathered wild fruits. Homo Neanderthalensis was the first human group to bury dead people. Some signals of FUNERAL RITES have been found in Morin cave in Cantabria. At the beginning of the paleolithic age they used very simple TOOLS made of stone, but little by little they became more elaborated. CAVE PAINTINGS The paintings in this period are in caves in the north of Spain.
ALTAMIRA, in Cantabria, is the most outstanding. There are paintings of animals living in cold weather: bisons, horses, deers, reindeers and bulls. NEOLITHIC 6000 B.C. - 2500 B.C. Agriculture and livestock replaced hunting and gathering little by little. Cereals (wheat and barley), but especially goats and sheep became the main activity. hand grinder New activities needed new tools, so they started using hand grinders, ploughs, hoes, and other farming tools. POTTERY was the most important advance and they used it for cooking and preserving food. Neolithic advances arrived in the Iberian peninsula thanks to groups of people that came from the east by sea. They settled on the Mediterranean coast and they spread to other parts from there. Cardial ceramic pots imprinted with shells in La Sarsa cave. cardial ceramic By Alejandro Cana Sánchez. INTEF Bell shaped ceramic expansion There were CIST BURIALS in Catalonia. These graves were holes in the ground with a big flat stone covering the dead. Inside there were usually two people and several objects: ceramic, necklaces and tools made of stone and bone. THE METAL AGE NEOLITHIC ROCK PAINTING This kind of rock painting was found in the east of the Iberian peninsula. The most important paintings are in Cogull cave in Lleida and Valltorta cave in Castellón. These painting are different from the paleolithic paintings found in the north.
- They are smaller and only use black and red.
- They are more schematic.
- There are groups of people hunting, dancing, etc.
- They show movement. Morella cave Horses cave Cingle cave The Paleolithic Age 800000 B.C. - 6000 B.C. The Neolithic Age 6000 B.C. - 2500 B.C. The Metal Age 2500 B.C. - Roman times Altamira cave People looking for metals arrived in the Mediterranean coast and they brought with them a new technology: METALLURGY. THE COPPER AGE There were several important cultures at that time: MILLARES It was one of the most important settlements at the time. (Almeria) A necropolis with colective tombs was found. They had a passage and a circular chamber By Zaqarbal. Wikicommons Eyed idol of Extremadura BELL BEAKER They made bell shaped ceramic decorated with horizontal lines.
They were usually found in tombs. By Zaqarbal. Wikicommons. By Alejandro Cana Sanchez. INTEF Ceramic with decorations By Tuor123. Wikicommons. MEGALITHIC CONSTRUCTIONS The first megalithic constructions appeared in the north and north-east of the peninsula. They built huge corridor graves. The most espectacular are the dolmens of Menga and El Romeral in Antequera, Malaga. Dolmen of Menga Dolmen El Romeral By Alejandro Cana Sanchez. INTEF By Alejandro Cana Sanchez. INTEF By Alejandro Cana Sanchez. INTEF THE BRONCE AGE ARGAR CULTURE It was in the actual provinces of Almeria and Granada. They buried their dead individually in big containers with their possessions. Ceramic without decorations TALAIOTIC CULTURE This culture took place on the Balearic islands. TAULA This monument consists of two flat stones and it is similar to a table. TALAIOT A tower made of stone. It can be circular or square. NAVETA It was a collective burial in the shape of an upside down boat. THE IRON AGE Celts arrived from the north. Fenicians and Greeks arrived from across the Mediterranean sea and settled in the Iberian peninsula.
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