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Global Media Systems
Transcript of Global Media Systems
Chapter 10 Objectivity vs. Bias Elements of News Reporting Nothing can ever be truly objective. When exposed to news media, you are invited to witness a multilevel discussion about what society believes is important or unimportant, dangerous or safe, wrong or right and so on. News content makes a media system more visible than others kinds of content because news reporting is the main source of information about national and international events. Levels of News Reporting Impacts individuals' basic decision-making. i.e. watching the weather Affects individuals' mindsets. i.e. a station reports on recent increase in theft, leading people to lock their doors more and install security systems. Government officials may seek policies with other countries after reading international news stories. An agency may cover a certain topic just because other stations are doing so. Profit vs. Service News reporting delivered by a profit-making media tends to prioritize brief stories that capture the attention of the audience, but does not do much to increase the understanding of a topic. News reporting delivered by a public-service media tends to be designed as a service to provide the public with information in longer stories that are perceived to meet the public's needs. Depth vs. Brevity The reports are based on the length, the space, companion and serializing. Entertainment vs. Serious Reporting The rise of news as entertainment is related to the proliferation of cable and satellite channels plus the increase use of the Internet. China Newspapers Considered openly biased toward the central government and the Communist party. In 2003, the Communist Party's Central Publicity work conference instructed that media outlets could not cover protests and other social unrest. National broadsheets that were controlled by the government openly supported the decision and actions of the government. they called for people to "bravely sacrifice their personal or partial interests for the whole interest of the country and the people. Radio & Television There is little or no leeway for objective reporting on political issues unless the coverage relates to local government corruption or abuse of power. China Newspapers Most news reporting in tabloids relate to entertainment. Other than celebrities and personalities, crime stories are prominent. They tend to balance celebrity with social justice news when laying out pages. Radio & Television TV reporting on the China Central Television channels as well as city or provincial channels is predominately serious. National broadsheets prioritize reporting on political figures. Reporters have been asked to dress more conservatively and only simple graphics are used. Commercially oriented city radio stations tend to include more sensationalist stories to gain audience support and advertising revenue. China Newspapers Since national broadsheets depend on financial support from the government and the party rather than advertisers and subscription fees, they have few pages than tabloids. Radio & Television Most radio news broadcasts are local or national with the remaining time allocated to international news related to China. Tabloids have the ability to go more in-depth because of their page numbers. Local city and provincial radio stations are required to report the key national political or economical news items, but they generally carry more local or localized news reports to cater to both audience tastes and to advertisers. Rarely do newscasts use live footage or interviews because broadcasts need to be censored. The only exception to this is if the president or a prominent political leader addresses the nation. Mexico Newspapers Most national newspapers are known for striving for objectivity. Freedom of Access to Information (2002 Federal Law) allows citizens and journalists for the first time to access federal records pertaining to public interest. They have a bias of reluctance to criticize the government and the tendency to print unedited press releases from the government. Radio & Television Private TV/radio casts are known for having fairly regular bias. The anchor will state his/her own opinion within the report. "Reforma" is commonly thought of as the most important newspaper because of its reputation for insisting on professional journalism and ethical conduct and because of its impact on government policies and public opinion. Most papers run commentary that's identifiable at the end of articles. Though government institutions are targets, criticism stops short of personally attacking elected officials. USA Newspapers Almost all newspapers have a goal of practicing objectivity and make attempts to have "both sides" of the story. Papers, radios and TV have one regular bias that in essence dismisses socialism and communism as distasteful ideologies. There is also a bias that describes the USA as the greatest and most-envied nation in the world. Editorials are included toward the end of a section, allowing writers to contribute their viewpoints as well as readers to submit letters to the editor. Radio & Television Radio refrains from political commentary or advocacy journalism. United Kingdom Newspapers Most national newspapers are associated with individual political orientations and are known for being openly biased with several of their pages consisting of biases, even within news stories. Some of their papers and the subject matter: "Times" - established-oriented, supporting the government. "Telegraph" - advocates free-market policy. "Independent" - politically independent and advocates for the environment and against war. "Guardian" - socialist policies. Most papers are known for printing advocacy content. Radio & Television These media outlets try to remain unbiased and aim at relative objectivity. USA Newspapers Big-city newspapers will carry stories from the front pages to the middle of the section. USA papers are better known for providing more breadth than depth to news stories because of the large amount of stories each issue holds. Small-town papers stick with writing to a "5th grade reading level" to make stories short and concise while capturing the audience's attention. Radio & Television International news are more prominent on network newscasts carried by affiliates. United Kingdom Newspapers Broadsheets provide in-depth news reporting in terms of elevating vocabulary, analysis, details, statistic, etc. News reports on the front pages are keyed to several companion reports within the issue. They provide detailed descriptions for their reporters' titles, i.e. Political Editor. Radio & Television Radio news reports are 15 seconds or longer and often include sound bites. Mexico Newspapers Tabloid newspapers are over very detailed in the coverage of crimes. Most newspapers, especially serious tabloids, provide detailed coverage of politics. They typically cover party conferences, political party strategies, speeches and policy announcements. National broadsheets that were controlled by the government openly supported the decision and actions of the government. they called for people to "bravely sacrifice their personal or partial interests for the whole interest of the country and the people. Radio & Television Broadsheets are known for extensively covering issues having to do with economic, social, political and infrastructure development. USA Newspapers Most are serious, but papers such as USA Today run entertainment-oriented sections. Most often, the leading stories involved current events happening within the country. Many local and syndicated stations are integrated into a talk or music show in an entertaining way with the hosts exchanging jokes prior to the reading of the news. Radio & Television On the noncommercial broadcaster NPR, the tone of news coverage is more subdued and slower-paced. Mexico Newspapers Most papers are serious; even the two sensational papers (La Presena and El Grafico) are mostly news. They cover current events, government activity and crime reports. A majority of their papers cover sports. Radio & Television Reports are heavily focused on politics, current events and health. United Kingdom Newspapers Most news reporting is entertaining, but serious news is also a staple of reporting. Broadsheets focus on serious news: politicians and business executives are often featured. Tabloids are nicknamed "red tops" because of the red bar located toward the top of the front page. Radio & Television BBC has more news in comparison to commercial channels' entertaining qualities, however both radio and TV news tend to cover more serious news reports. They have a more expressive style of presentation when using more facial and hand gestures in comparison to the USA. Opening TV newscasts feature dramatic music, more modern approaches, colorful sets and multiple TV sets in the background. Noncommercial PBS newscasts have a bland, quiet set in comparison. On BBC, radio news is frequent and has depth. News report lengths can differ widely on TV news. The lead story can last up to five minutes with other stories taking 20 seconds to two minutes. Most common announcement is the three minute bulletin that includes weather, traffic and local news reports. In-depth international news is not commonly found. Public opinion polls and business and economic news are consistently covered in depth. Over the course of half an hour there are nine to 10 stories reported on TV. Noncommercial PBS TV newscasts focus on local and regional news. National public radio stations carry more extensive news. Radio new stories on commercial stations are only 15-30 seconds in length. National broadsheets are known for covering a lot of international news, especially USA news. All papers provide regular and detailed stories of religion. International news tends to be more focused on USA rather than Central and South America. Most radio reports range from 1:00-1:30 minutes. TV private-stations newscasts can have as many as nine headline stories and are mainly political national stories or international stories. TV public-station newscasts have four top headlines and focus on local and regional news. France Newspapers Newspapers have intellectual depth, especially in the coverage of culture, medicine, politics, the environment and history. Most detailed news reporting focuses on a scholar or an artist and brings in discussion analysis by academic and cultural experts. The stories have elevated language and companion reports. Radio & Television Radio newscasts are framed as national or local news. "France Info" carries the most news on domestic radio stations that carries discussion programs and music that are interrupted by five minute news flashes every 20 minutes. Most TV newscasts tend to have breadth than depth because of the brevity of most stories. Most stories are one-two minutes. Over the course of a 40-minute newscast, there are 20-25 stories. Sports segments are shorter in comparison to other countries. Sweden Newspapers Morning newspapers provide in-depth feature news and articles with newsworthy events involve extensive analysis. News reports on the front page will have companion articles inside. Sensational afternoon tabloid papers provide depth in reporting about dramatic crimes and accidents while incorporating the use of graphics and photographs. Radio & Television "Expressen" ran a story on the front page that ran companion articles over 14 pages. Sensational afternoon tabloids also provide details of sexuality issues while providing serious corresponding education. Much of depth in Swedish morning papers revolved around the debate papers. Radio news is continuous throughout the day but morning and late afternoon reports tend to be longer. Three minute bulletins are the most common. The first two or three stories are of current events from anywhere in Sweden, then international stories following by global features. New stories can range from 20 seconds to four minutes. The first three stories are current events while the remaining are hard or feature news stories. TV news is aired on two public and one private commercial broadcasts and does not follow a specific format. Sweden Newspapers Most newspaper reporting is serious with the priority as follows: people's lives, politics, culture, the environment, immigration issues and EU news. They have a vivid openness and directness with which serious subjects are covered especially when it comes to issues related to the human body. In one story, a photo of a baby's foot coming out of the mother's womb during a c-section was used. Typically tabloids cover news of crime or tragic accidents rather than celebrity activities. Radio & Television Broadsheets and sensational tabloids often have news of government policies not working. Public-service radio station channels are usually serious. TV news focuses on accidents, crime, social conditions and international events. TV news sets have a nature theme and sets have warm lights to illuminate parts of the set. France Newspapers Most reporting is serious with the priorities in order as followed: current events, politics, medicine and technology, EU news and crime. Use of literary or academic terms is frequent. Scandals are reported, but do not take priority. Radio & Television Entertainment-oriented stories tend to have serious angles to them. News reporters on both France TV networks and commercial broadcaster TFI have more serious than entertaining qualities. Graphics are not used much in TV newscasts. France Newspapers Four of the five national papers are associated with individual political-orientation, most of which lean to the left. "L'Humanite" - far-left communist; "Liberation" - left wing intellectual; "Le Monde" (The World) - left-of-center "paper of record;" "Le Canard Enchaine" (The Enchanied Duck) - left wing that is derisive of politics; "Le Figaro" - right wing paper. Radio & Television Papers are known for practicing objectivity, but also cross the line over into becoming bias. "Le Monde" and "Le Figaro" carry two pages of clearly identified commentary and debate. The others mix commentary within most pages. TV and radio newscasts on both private and public channels are not known to be conservatively or liberally based. They try to be objective by refraining from commentary or advocacy journalism. TV news is known for being acquiescent by avoiding aggressive questioning and criticism of government officials. Sweden Newspapers Most national newspapers lean to the left side. National newspapers: Dagens Nyheter (Daily News) is center-left and is the most prestigious. Svenska Dagbladet (Swedish Daily Sheet) is center-right. Aftonbladet (Evening Sheet) is left in regard to labor issues. Expressen (The Express) and Kvallposten (Evening Post is center-right. All papers strive for objectivity. Radio & Television Almost all have a Leder (leader) page which prints a staff editorial that tries to convince readers of a certain point of view. They will run letters form ordinary citizens seeking to offer opinion on government policies. "Debate papers" are these letters that take several pages but are most often written by politicians, business executives and state employees. There are laws that permit citizens to have access to receipts documenting how government officials spend tax dollars. Both media outlets are not known for bias. In recent years Sweden SR International is the radio channel of the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation, with programs in 17 languages. (nationsonline.org) "Aftonbladet" is currently the major newspaper for the country. China The People's Daily is the official paper for the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It is also the most authoritative newspaper in China. (nationsonline.org) United Kingdom Headlines are extremely detailed for tabloids and the stories have a list of bullet points summarizing the main points of the story. The story follows afterward but is broken by photos throughout. Mexico "Reforma" has made the transition to online news. People are able to read the headlines and the leads of most stories but cannot access full articles until they subscribe to the paper or register for access. France Of the ten newspapers listed on nationsonline.org for France, six of them were focused primarily on international and national news. Two on the list were directed toward business and finance reports. USA Between MSNBC and Fox News there are political biases present, creating arguments between show guests and show hosts as well as those that view the channels. Entertainment is a main focus for several news outlets, hoping to increase station ratings and to compete with other companies.