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Space

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Maridee Weber

on 4 May 2011

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Transcript of Space

BLACK HOLES By: Maridee Weber Ms. Decedue
Hour: 7
5/5/11 What is a black hole? A place where gravity is so strong that it sucks everything in, including light.

(1000 things you should know about space)
The Basics How do we find them?
Astronomers look in telescopes and try to find places where light disappears. They believe black holes are inside the center of galaxies. (Black Holes, SCIENCE WEEKLY) How do they form? Black holes form when a star that's much more massive than our Sun runs out of fuel and collapses. If the star is massive enough, after the collapse there is nothing left but a warping of space-time. (Beyond Einstein, Odyssey Vol. 18, No. 9 Nov/Dec 2009, pp. 21-25) The life of a black hole...rather the death of a star. Black Holes are born when natures most massive stars burn off all their fuel and violently implode.
They form in less than a second.
(Seeing Black Holes) Life of a star……….
"A star is formed when a large amount of gas (mostly hydrogen) starts to collapse in on itself due to its gravitational attraction. As it contracts the atoms of the gas collide with each other more and more frequently with greater and greater speeds—the gas heats up. Eventually the gas will be so hot that when the hydrogen atoms collide they no longer bounce off each other, but instead coalesce to form helium. The heat released in this reaction, which is like a controlled hydrogen bomb explosion, is what makes the star shine. This additional heat also increases the pressure of the gas until it is sufficient to balance the gravitational attraction, and the gas stops contracting. Eventually, the star will run out of its hydrogen and other nuclear fuels."
(A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes By: Stephen Hawking ) The previous assumption was that stars with a mass between 10 and 25 solar masses would form neutron stars and those with 25 solar masses or more would produce black holes.
"These stars must get rid of more than nine tenths of their mass before exploding as a supernova, or they would otherwise have created a black hole instead,"
-Ignacio Negueruela. (http://find.galegroup.com/gps/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28K0%2CNone%2C19%29black+hole+theories%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28TX%2CNone%2C9%29star+life%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R4&currentPosition=1&userGroupName=klnb_usd232&docId=A234997064&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents) Death of a black hole
Hawking Radiation evaporates black holes because when black holes give off radiation, they lose some of their mass.
This happens because the black hole would attract the negative particle and at the same time eject a positive particle.
Astronomer Thomas Arny says in his book Explorations, “the time it takes for a solar-mass black hole to disappear by ‘shining itself away’ is very long– approximatley 10 to the 67th power years! This is……vastly larger than the age of the universe—but the implications are important: even black holes evolve and ‘die’.”
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books 4/6/11) Around 1970 Stephen Hawking found that black holes gave off radiation, or energy. His discovery challenged the belief that nothing could escape from a black hole, called “Hawking Radiation”
(Stephen Hawking, Biography for Beginners) Types of Black Holes Miniature-
Might be the size of an atom but weigh 100 trillion tons because its matter would be so densely packed.
Could even be the size of an atoms nucleus and weigh about a billion tons.
Stephen Hawking proposed that microscopic black holes formed in the huge explosion that gave birth to the universe.
Stellar-
Standard black hole, 8-20 solar masses.
Intermediate-
Scientists have figured, since the 1970’s, these contain a few hundred to several tens of thousands of solar masses. They form in regions of densely packed stars and gas clouds.
In 2002, researchers at the Space Telescope Institute, led by Roeland Van Der Marel found two midsized black holes, one with 4,000 solar masses, the other with 20,000.
In 2003, Jon Miller and his team from Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics found two more intermediate sized black holes. They were ten million light years from Earth, and contained several hundred solar masses.
Supermassive, “Galactic black holes”-
Appear to be in galaxies cores.
The Milky way is about 26,000 light years away, to see other galaxies cores it would take a major telescope, plus layers of gas and space dust make it more difficult, so they, scientistists, use an infrared telescopes.
Sagittarius A* is most likely a supermassive black hole, scientists say. They assume this because stars move tremendously faster around this “star”, the fastest star that has been viewed moved 900 miles per second.
It was estimated, in the 1990’s , to be 2.6 million solar masses. But in 2002 Rainer Schodel, of Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics showed it was 3.7 million times larger than our Sun. (Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) How do we know the sizes of black holes? Scientists observe the speeds at which matter is orbiting a black hole and determine how massive the central object would have to be to produce these movements.
First, they use instruments and mathematics to measure the distance between an orbiting star and the black hole. Then, they compute the orbital velocity and plug the information into an equation that determines the mass.
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) What happens if two black holes collide? David Merritt of Rutgers University and Ronald Ekers recently found evidence that black holes do collide. They found that in a group of galaxies, strange X shaped structures were at the centers. They believe the X is a high-speed jet of material coming from a black hole that has recently merged. PARTS OF A BLACK HOLE Singularity Event Horizon (http://aboutfacts.net/SpacePlanets/SP73/NASA/blackhole3.jpg) Point of no return. The center of a black hole. Escape Velocity The speed at which an object must move in order to escape the gravitational field of another object.
Earth has an escape velocity of 7 miles per second. To “escape” from Earth you must be going this speed. On the other hand, to escape from being pulled into a black hole you must be going at least 186,000 miles per second.
According to Isaac Asimov, “If a mini black hole collides with a large body, it will simply bore its way through. It will engulf the first bit of matter with which it collides, liberating enough energy in the process to melt and vaporize the matter immediately ahead. It will then pass through hot vapor, absorbing it as it goes and adding to the heat, emerging at last as a considerably larger black hole than it was when it entered.”
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Escape Velocity The speed at which an object must move in order to escape the gravitational field of another object.
Earth has an escape velocity of 7 miles per second. To “escape” from Earth you must be going this speed. On the other hand, to escape from being pulled into a black hole you must be going at least 186,000 miles per second.
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Wormholes A hypothetical shortcut that connects two distant points in the universe. (Warped Notion, ST. LOUIS POST-DISPATCH) Einstein and Rosen found that wormholes are mathematically possible.
They would only open for 1/10,000 of a second.
In the 1960’s Flamm, Einstein and Rosen found that the singularity of a black hole is shaped more like a ring than an infinite point, a wormhole.
Gribbin says as you pass through the ring you enter a region with negative gravity and the world is turned upside-down. Gravity reverses, turning into a repulsive force that pushes you, instead of pulling. The gravity of the black hole repels both matter and light away from itself.
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) White holes It is a region in space from which light and matter are violently escaping. A white hole has a kind of event horizon too. However, the outward flow of matter and light from the white hole prevents any outside matter from penetrating the event horizon. (Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Haven’t ever actually been observed.
Expel matter sucked into black holes back into the universe. In 1935, Einstein and Nathan Rosen, suggested that a bridge, or a wormhole, might connect a black hole to a white hole that would discharge the matter.
White holes can exist only in a universe where time can move backward, which is improbable in our universe.
BLACK HOLE MYTHS Time traveling Many science fiction writers have frequently portrayed super dense objects disturbing the fabric of space and finally tearing it, thereby creating a small opening. Such an opening in the invisible spatial tunnel it leads to are together, and commonly referred to as a wormhole. Then, a piloted spacecraft travels through the wormhole and emerges either in distant regions of the galaxy or in the past or future. Why is it impossible? Wormholes are a theoretical idea for how "tunnels" of strong gravity--such as those produced inside a black hole--connect different regions of the universe. This idea is not just science fiction: Theoretical physicists have been interested in such things for some time. However, wormholes would likely be unstable and would collapse on themselves the moment they were created. So even aside from the practical issues, such as how to make a wormhole--a pretty enormous concern--they don't seem all too promising for time travel.
--Eliot Quataert, University of California, Berkeley (http://find.galegroup.com/gps/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28K0%2CNone%2C22%29time+travel+black+hole%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R1&currentPosition=1&userGroupName=klnb_usd232&docId=A232376390&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents )
The Sun will become a black hole and consume the Earth Why is it impossible? Billions of years from now, our Sun will begin to run out of the hydrogen that fuels the nuclear reactions in its core. When most of the hydrogen is gone, the core will get both denser and hotter. This extra heat will cause the Sun’s outer layers to expand outward, transforming it in to an enormous star hundreds of times bigger than it is now; in fact, its surface will engulf the orbits of Mercury and Venus, destroying those planets, and the surface of Earth will be scorched as if in a blast furnace. Black holes form from a star that's much more massive than our Sun. (Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) ....those above 25 solar masses would produce black holes. http://find.galegroup.com/gps/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28K0%2CNone%2C19%29black+hole+theories%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28TX%2CNone%2C9%29star+life%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R4&currentPosition=1&userGroupName=klnb_usd232&docId=A234997064&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents
(Beyond Einstein, Odyssey Vol. 18, No. 9 Nov/Dec 2009, pp. 21-25) BLACK HOLES AND OUR UNIVERSE Our fate? All the galactic black holes could merge into one gigantic black hole. These will slowly and steadily begin a new cycle of growth and merger, called “oscillating universe”
If there is an ultimate cosmic crunch, when everything in the universe is in one or more titanic black holes, we would face physical death…………….but this will not exist until billions of years from now and humanity will be extinct.
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) How can black holes be used? Isaac Asimov says, “ A stream of frozen hydrogen pellets can be aimed past the mini-black hole, so that it skims the Schwarzschild radius without entering it. Tidal effects will heat the hydrogen to the point of fusion, so that helium will come through at the other end. The mini-black hole will then prove the simplest and most foolproof nuclear reactor possible, and the energy it produces can be stored and sent down to Earth.”
(Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Astronomers & Scientists Karl Schwarzschild Schwarzschild radius. A one solar mass black hole will have a radius of 1.86 miles.
Came out with a black hole that does not rotate on its axis. (Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Albert Einstein General Relativity / Spacetime 3rd dimension-World as we know it.
4th dimension-Time. Theory of relativity- Space can be bent and stretched. All massive objects like stars and planets bent the space and time around them. Any object that passes through that warped space-time will move as if being pulled by a force, gravity. Space and time can be bent to a breaking point which are black holes.
Time Dilation (Seeing Black Holes) A person who passes through the event horizon of a black hole will feel as though time is passing normally, he would feel himself pass from the spaceship to the horizon in just a few minutes.
A person observing would see the person slowly spiraling around into the black hole, but being frozen at the horizon forever.
(Black Holes By: Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Stephen Hawking Information Paradox “If you get all the information from an object you can make it from scratch.”
Previously said, “disappearing matter travels through the black hole to a new parallel universe, the very stuff of most visionary science fiction.”
Newest Theory
Black holes, the mysterious massive vortexes formed from collapsed stars, do not destroy everything they consume but instead eventually fire out matter and energy "in a mangled form."
Black holes hold their contents for eons but themselves eventually deteriorate and die. As the black hole disintegrates, they send their transformed contents back out into the infinite universal horizons from whence they came. (http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/07/16/tech/main630203.shtml )
Stephen's single information equation- SBH=C3A
-------
4hG G= gravity
C= work of Einstein’s E=mc2
h= quantum physics
S= thermodynamics If in a black hole you would be converted into protons, neutrons, and electrons and vaporize.
You would feel nothing odd.
You could be both dead and alive at the same time.
The information inside the person would be smeared and look vanished from past the event horizon, the person would feel as though they where still in tact.
Susskind's formula- <* l O1 l *> = Tr [ pB O1 ]
Hawking finally found neither he nor Susskind was right.
He said, “All parallel universes must combine. The information is lost in the black hole histories, but preserved in histories without a black hole.”
These cancel out, and there would be no black holes to preserve it, but the information would be preserved. (The Hawking Paradox) What happens to stuff that goes inside of a black hole? When matter goes into a black hole, it is torn apart and glows so brightly, it becomes the brightest object in the universe, called quasars. (1000 things you should know about space)
The information inside the person would be smeared and look vanished from past the event horizon, the person would feel as though they where still in tact. (Stephen Hawking, The Hawking Paradox) A person who passes through the event horizon of a black hole will feel as though time is passing normally, he would feel himself pass from the spaceship to the horizon in just a few minutes.
A person observing would see the person slowly spiraling around into the black hole, but being frozen at the horizon forever.
(Einstein's Theory of Relativity, Black Holes By: Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) Scientists and astronomers used to think no one could survive past the event horizon. Now they think it is possible to survive, but you have no choice but to continue downward toward the singularity. (Seeing Black Holes) Everything would feel normal to the person going into the black hole.
The inward flow of a black hole eventually slows down to less than the speed of light because the rotation of the hole repulsion and at that point things collide. The temperature is so hot that everything is vaporized.
Einstein's equations and theories prove that the only thing more extreme than the inner horizon of a black hole is what lies beyond it.
It is remarkably difficult to predict what would happen past the inner horizon, but that is probably as far down as you would get.
(Seeing Black Holes) EQUATIONS Ricci curvature tensor – ½ the metric tensor x the contracted curvature tensor = the stress energy tensor
This is saying that if you start with a star, black hole, or universe, than this equation determines the curvature that surrounds the series of matter and energy. Core of a black hole
(1- mass of black hole over distance from black hole)
This is (1- 2mg over r)
If “r” or the distance is zero, then physics break down.
1 over “r” = 1 over 0 which equals infinity.
Gravity is infinite at the center of a black hole, time is stopped, and space makes no sense.
Einstein’s theory has a fundamental flaw.
(Seeing Black Holes) (Black Holes By:Don Nardo 2004 by Lucent Books) (http://find.galegroup.com/gps/retrieve.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C11%29white+holes%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext%24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&searchId=R1&currentPosition=3&userGroupName=klnb_usd232&docId=A240918555&docType=IAC&contentSet=IAC-Documents)
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Harris, Laurie L. "Stephen Hawking." Biography for Beginners Fall 2007: 41-51. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 5 Apr. 2011.
"The Hawking Paradox." The Hawking Paradox. Discovery Channel. 16 Apr. 2011. Television.
Hawking, S. W. A Brief History of Time: from the Big Bang to Black Holes. Toronto: Bantam, 1988. Print.
Hill, Lisa P. "Black Holes." Science Weekly 7 Mar. 2008. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
"How Much Mass Makes A Black Hole." Space Daily 20 Aug. 2010. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 Apr. 2011.
Hudon, Daniel. "Beyond Einstein." Odyssey Nov.-Dec. 2009: 21-25. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
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Quataert, Eliot. "Not a Way to Time Travel." Astronomy Sept. 2010: 49. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 20 Apr. 2011.
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Size, Font. "Hawking's New Black Hole Theory - CBS News." Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. .
Smith, Bill. "WARPED NOTION?" ST. LOUIS POST-DISPATCH [St.Louis, Missouri] 29 Jan. 1995. Print.
Westrup, Hugh. "TIME TRAVEL: CAN YOU GO BACK TO THE FUTURE?" Current Science 14 Feb. 1992: 8-10. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 8 Apr. 2011.
"Where Does Matter That Gets Sucked into a Black Hole End Up?" Science Illustrated Nov.-Dec. 2010: 32. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. Based on astronomers and scientists knowledge about black hole behavior, there are questions about whether or not a person can survive past the event horizon of a black hole because of its extreme properties. After looking at and analyzing facts and theories about what happens inside black holes, you can very well see that it is completely possible to survive in a black hole, but only for a short period of time.
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