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Big Picture Africa 3.02H

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Deja Lenae

on 16 October 2012

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Transcript of Big Picture Africa 3.02H

Aksum, Great Zimbabwe, Meroe, and Timbuktu World Heritage Aksum (Axum) Aksum (Axum) The Ark of the Covenant between Solomon and Makeda has remained in Aksum ever since their son, Menelik, brought it back from Jerusalem to his hometown. It is in an annex to the Church of St Mary of Zion. Zimbabwe During the 11th century, Bantu peoples migrated to cities in Central & South Africa, and began cities; one being Great Zimbabwe. These cities sent interior trade goods (gold, copper, and iron) along the Limpopo & Save Rivers to cities on the Indian Coast. In the 14th century, GZ was the principal city of a major state extending over the gold-rich plateaux; its population exceeded 10,000 inhabitants. The people worshiped the Shona god, Mwari. They identified their ruler as "chief" instead of "king". Great Zimbabwe Great Zimbabwe National Monument is divided into three groups: the Hill Ruins, the Great Enclosure and the Valley Ruins.The Hill Ruins is a huge granite mass that for district enclosures with passageways to enter.The Great Enclosure is built of cut granite that has hut-living quarters and a community area within. The Valley Ruins are living ensembles scattered through the valley. Axum was a city that became powerful in the market industry when Africans & Arabs settled on the Red Sea. This kingdom traded ivory, gold, glass and agricultural & metal goods for textiles, spices, oils and dyes from the Roman Empire, Egypt, Arabia and India. Christianity was introduced in the 4th century by missionaries, and in 320 CE, King Ezana became the first known Christian king of Africa. Axum was great all through the 6th century, when Sassanid Persians overran Arabia & rolled back Axum's influence there. Then, in the 7th century, Arabs conquered Adulis, cutting Axum off from its prosperous Red Sea trade. Aksum is considered to be the heart of ancient Ethiopia. In 590 BCE, the Kush moved their capital to Meroe. The Kush depended on farming & iron mining & thrived through trade along with Greeks, Roman, Arab & Indian merchants. The region around Meroe flourished for several hundred years. The people shared gods with Egyptians, such as Isis, Amun, Horus, and Bas. They paid annual taxes to a king, and had consent in their absolute anarchy. Meroe The island of Meroe has 3 separate site components: Meroe, the capital, which includes the town & cemetery , and Musawwarat es-Sufra & Naqa, two settlements & religious centers. The Meroe cemetery, Musawwarat es-Sufra, and Naqa are located in a semi-desert, whilst the Meroe town site is part of a riverine landscape. These sites portray the Kingdom of Kush with pyramids, temples, and palaces that were home to them thousands of years ago. Meroe The Mosque of Djingareyber was built by Kankan Moussa after his return in 1325 from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Between 1570 and 1583 the Qadi of Timbuktu, Imam Al Aqib, had it reconstructed & enlarged, adding the whole southern part and the wall enclosing the graveyard situated to the west. The central minaret dominates the town and is the most visible landmark of the urban landscape. A smaller minaret on the eastern facade completes the profile of the Great Mosque which has three inner courtyards. Timbuktu was founded in the 5th century by Imakcharen Tuaregs who established a temporary camp guarded by an old woman, Buktu. Timbuktu eventually became a small sedentary village at the crossroads of several trade routes. Quickly converted to Islam (the two great mosques of Djingareyber and Sankore appeared during the Mandingue period), the market city reached its peak under Askia's reign. It then became an important center for Koranic culture with the University of Sankore & other schools attended by 25,000 students. Aksum was in command of the ivory trade with Sudan. It also dominated the trade route leading south and the port of Adulis on the Gulf of Zola. Timbuktu Timbuktu Historic Importance Great Zimbabwe was associated with gold trading & extensive trade activities on the east coast of Africa. Meroe was the principal residence of rulers, & from the 3rd century on, it was the site of most royal burials. Timbuktu was an important market place where the trading of manuscripts was negotiated, and salt from Teghaza in the north, gold was sold, and cattle and grain from the south.
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