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Naturalization Act of 1790 made it clear race was determined by skin color and that citizen was restricted to whites only.
Beginning in the nineteenth century, large numbers of Chinese moved to the Americas and Europe.
America had felt the ethnic impact of the Chinese by the twentieth century with the opening of Chinese restaurants in New York City.
Koreans started migrating to Hawaii and mainland US after 1910 when Japan wanted to rule Korea and they came over here to escape it.
A big chunk of Chinese came in the 1850’s to join the gold rush.
1860s Chinese hired to help build transcontinental railroad
1871- Lynching of 22 Chinese men by L.A. mob
1875- Page Law, Congress forbade entry into the US of Chinese, Japanese, and “Mongolian” contract labor.
1943- Congress allows Chinese right to citizenship (only 105/year)
1946- Philippines and India granted citizenship (100/country/year)
Spring, Joel H. "Asian Americans: Exclusion and Segregation." Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality: A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States. Seventh ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001. 68-79. Print. Anna May Wong- Actor
Chinese Railroad Builders- Pioneers
Fred Korematsu- Activist
Maya Lin- Architect, Designer
Maxine Hong Kingston- Author, Educator
Chang-Lin Tien- Educator, Activist
Connie Chung- News Pioneer
David Ho- Researcher
Ang Lee- Filmmaker Margaret Cho- Actor, Activist
Gary Locke- Politician
Michelle Kwan- Olympian
Jerry Yang- Creator of Yahoo!
Amy Tan- Author
Yo-Yo Ma- Musician
Haing S. Ngor- Actor
Bruce Lee- Martial Artist, Philosopher, Film Maker
Ann Curry- News Journalist 1.Overcoming national, state and local government laws based on prejudice and discrimination.
•19th and 20th century court rulings denied Asian Americans the right to be naturalized citizens
•Law barred testimony of people who were not white and so murderers could not be tried if testimony was by non-white individuals
•Chinese laborers were banned from immigration in 1882 for ten years
•Unable to own land.
•Not allowed citizenship until 1952.
•In 1884, in California, Asian American school-age children were barred from education
•Were schooled in separate schools until 1905, when the board of education was forced to let Chinese youths attend the regular city high schools
•In Mississippi, 1924, Chinese Americans were told to attend school with “colored” children because if they were not white, they were colored.
•Asian Indians were sent to schools of Mexican American children in California.
•Barred from certain professions such as medicine and engineering.
•Were all classified under “Mongolian race.”
•Low-wage jobs and lynching in 1800s. Challenges faced by Americans of Asian origin or descent cont. 2. Overcoming persecution and prejudice based on U.S. Foreign relationship with country.
• Japanese Americans were interred in concentration camps during WWII, including native-born Japanese Americans.
3. Overcoming cultural and linguistic genocide.
• Japanese in Hawaii set up private language/culture schools for their children and were accused of hindering “Americanization”
4. Overcoming exploitative ideals by opponents of Civil Rights Movements.
• Using Asians as examples of model citizens to undermine civil rights movement. Timeline Asian Americans were shocked by the hostility of Anglo-Americans (exclusion, racism, segregation).
The perception of the U.S. as the “The land of the free” was far from reality.
Rude surprise to Asian Americans when they arrived to a nation that viewed their culture as immoral, racially and culturally inferior.
Asian Americans goal was to make a fortune in the U.S and return back to their homeland or adapt and build a home in their new country.
Joel Spring believes that Asian Americans were treated similar to both Native and African Americans. As well as, European Americans tended to think all people from the East as an "undifferentiated other." Author Perception of the Asian American Struggle Activities The Struggle: Past and Present Themes Racism- Belittled by European Americans along with African Americans. They were titled as "colored" people.
Segregation- Were forced to go to "colored" school and in some states were segregated into Asian only schools.
Community- Many "China Town" areas are found all around the world (New York City, Singapore, Argentina, etc). The people living in these communities are known as "overseas" Chinese.
Americanism- All Americans must be taught to read and write in one language regardless of their background. Teaching Implications As an educator, avoid ANY stereotypes.
A "positive" stereotype can also be harmful because it stops children from being individuals and lead to educational issues.
Try to choose textbook authors that are of diverse races and cultures. This will help children relate.
Honor home language (find similarities that will help students learn English in an easier way) "Flash card model" Lon Po Po
Multicultural Self Circle Activity