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Psychology unit 6: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

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Joe Berchtold

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Psychology unit 6: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

System of communication that involves rules to make and combine symbols in ways that produce meaningful words and sentences
Phonemes and Morphemes
Phonemes- smallest units of sound
Morphemes- smallest units of meaning
Syntax
Language rules that govern how words are combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences
Semantics
The study of meaning in language
Theories of
Language Development
Language
Behavioral
Noam Chomsky
LAD- Language Acquisition Device
B.F. Skinner
We are hard wired to learn language rapidly and easily, particularly when younger
Observation
Imitation
Repetition
We learn language through being rewarded and punished for it's use
Example:
Child makes noise, parents praise child
the more the noise sounds like a word, the more they praise the kid
Did you come up with any other ways?
KINDS OF THINKING
Awareness of one’s own thinking processes
Methods of Problem Solving
A step by step procedure for solving a problem

often used in math problems

Much slower, but much more accurate
Inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects
We become rigid in our thinking
OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM SOLVING
Say no to functional fixedness!!
Be Creative and Original!

Be Flexible in your thinking
Overcome rigidity
Create original solutions to problems

Recombination
Rearrange familiar elements of a problem to create a new solution
Candle-Mounting problem
Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
Goal directed, purposeful thinking
Ex: Solution of a math problem
A free flow of thoughts with no particular plan
Depends more on images and feelings
Directed/Convergent Thinking
Nondirected/Divergent Thinking
Metacognition
Problem Solving
A rule of thumb problem solving strategy

Quick and easy, but less accurate
“A-ha” moments,
Solutions seem to just present themselves
Algorithm
Heuristics
Insight
Functional Fixedness
“Thinking about Thinking”
…probably what you’re doing right now
Stages of
Cognitive Development
Developed by Jean Piaget
Stage 2: Preoperational
Stage 1: Sensorimotor
Inability to form schemas (a.k.a. mental representations)
Heavy reliance on the five senses
No understanding of
object permanence
– the world doesn’t disappear when you can’t see it
Child is very egocentric – cannot understand any viewpoint other than their own
Child gains ability to form mental representations and object permanence
Egocentrism beings to decrease
Lacks
Conservation
- amounts don’t change as their appearances change
Stage 4: Formal Operations
Stage 3: Concrete Operations
Ages: 0–2
Child gains some basic logic abilities, but
lacks ability to think abstractly
Child begins to understand Conservation
Egocentrism mostly gone- child is able to distinguish their perspective from the perspective of others
Child has gained ability to understand object permanence and conservation
Child gains the ability to think abstractly and use logic
Ages: 2-7
Ages: 7-11
Ages: 11-adulthood
Egocentrism
Changing and reorganizing the information stored in memory to create new ideas and information
Thinking
Units of Thought
(a.k.a. what thoughts are made up of)
A visual, mental representation of an object
An abstract unit of thought that represents an object or quality
A label for a class of objects or events that have at least one attribute in common
A representative example of a concept
Prototype
Image
Symbol
Concept
(a)
(b)
(c)
1
W
Convergent Thinking
Answer
Facts
Facts
Facts
Facts
Facts
Facts
Facts
Stimulus
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Ideas
Divergent Thinking
Intelligence according to…
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Suggested that there are 8 different kinds of intelligence
Verbal
Logical/Mathematical
Spatial
Musical
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
Most common definition: The ability to acquire new ideas, new behavior and adapt to new situations

Lots of debate on exactly what intelligence is
What exactly is “Intelligence”?
Intelligence according to…
Charles Spearman’s Two Factor Theory

He suggested that intelligence is composed of just two things
g- General Intelligence

s- Specific Mental Abilities or Skills
Intelligence according to...
L.L. Thurstone’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities

Said that Intelligence was made up of:
Verbal Comprehension
Numerical Ability
Spatial Relations
Perceptual Speed
Word Fluency
Memory
Inductive Reasoning
Intelligence according to…
Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Model of Intelligence
Suggested that intelligence is composed of three parts:
Practical Intelligence
Analytical Intelligence
Creative Intelligence
Intelligence
There are two major tests that Wechsler created

The WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)

And the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)

These tests not only ask questions, but also give a variety of tasks (ex: picture completion, block design)
Wechsler tests
Intelligence Testing
The Stanford Binet
Developed by Alfred Binet(1904)
Was designed to identify “slow learners”
Questions are based upon age level
Produces score called IQ – Intelligence Quotient
IQ doesn’t have to do with mental age anymore
Now they just do some math to make 100 the average
More IQ
Wechsler test scores
OLD IQ =
Do you think if you took the same test again, you would receive a similar score?
Does your performance on the test reflect your usual performance in the subject?
If you were to compare your score with those of your classmates, would it reflect your standing within that group?
Ask These Questions
What do tests measure?
(besides intelligence)
Aptitude Tests
Measure potential ability in a certain area, meant to predict performance
SATs are supposed to predict college performance

Achievement Tests
Measure amount of knowledge gained or learned
Pretty much every test you take in school

Personality Tests
Measure personality traits, habits, characteristics, etc.
Projective
subjects respond to ambiguous images
project personality onto image
The Rorschach is the best known one

Objective
subjects respond to predetermined alternatives
no elaboration in response
Two Different Kinds
The ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Standardization
Test is scored and administered exactly the same way every time

The norms of a large number of scores must be established in order for scores to mean anything
Psychological Testing
Theories
Reliability & Validity
What makes a test good?
Standardization
Types of Tests
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