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MRI SCANS (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING)

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by

Rida Malik

on 6 May 2015

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Transcript of MRI SCANS (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING)

What is an MRI scan?
important to healthcare system
medical imaging technique
use strong magnetic waves to form images of the body
used in hospitals for medical diagnosis
Physics Principles applied to design and use of MRI technology
HOW AN MRI MACHINE WORKS
"sees" water, very useful tool
although all parts of water molecule are not "seen", only hydrogen nuclei
hydrogen nuclei use quantum physics property called "spin"
does not go round and round, instead it's oriented in certain ways
Advantages and Disadvantages of MRI technology
shows both bone and soft tissue in very good detail
Careers related to the use of MRI technology
MRI technicians and radiologists
Research carried out to improve the design and use of MRI technology
MRI technology: social, economic and environmental impacts on individuals and society
impacts in a positive way
non invasive
no radiation
exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF)
can examine almost any part of body
help diagnose conditions, plan treatments and assess how effective previous treatment has been
very clear and detailed images produced
producing over 2000 units per year
40% world marketing and production of MRI technology in U.S
MRI technology will increase

MRI SCANS (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING)
Magnetic diagnostic imaging technologies
aid in detection and treatment of illnesses
technologies include: X-rays, ultrasounds and MRI scans
X-rays = good pictures of bones in body but no good pictures of soft tissue
they are are harmful
ultrasounds = good pictures of soft tissue but no good pictures of penetrating bone
This is an X-ray image. You can see the bones very clearly.
This is an ultrasound image. You can see the soft tissue clearly.
Advantages
Disadvantages
machines = very expensive, noisy, cannot be used in certain situations
machine cannot be used if patient is claustrophobic, has a heart pacemaker or has metal implants
not that many MRI scans available, patients waiting months or even up to a year for access to an MRI
help diagnose and monitor conditions affecting internal organs, tissue and bone in detail
generally painless
does not produce radiation, safe for children and pregnant women
The magnet is shown as the green coils of wire. The magnetic fields are produced by the magnet which are represented by the green lines with arrows.
The patient is placed inside the MRI machine. The red dots are represented as the hydrogen nuclei, this is what interests the MRI machine.
Close up of the hydrogen nuclei.
Recall, hydrogen nuclei have a property called spin, which can be orientated in certain ways due to quantum physics.
Some of the hydrogen nuclei line up along the magnetic field while some of them line up to the opposite direction of the magnetic field.
This black coil produces energy to 'irritate' the low energy hydrogen nuclei.
MRI machine applies current to energy producing coil. The coil produces energy in the form of a rapidly changing magnetic field. This energy is called "radio frequency" coil.
The hydrogen nuclei with low energy absorb the energy sent from the RF coil.
Once the low energy hydrogen nuclei absorb the energy, they change their spin direction and become high energy nuclei.
After a short period, RF energy is stopped.
The hydrogen nuclei that recently became high energy go back to their low energy state. They release energy in form of waves.
The MRI machine has receiver coils, that receive energy waves sent out by the nuclei. Energy has been given up and so they change their spin direction and return to their low energy state.
Targeting one part of the body
By changing frequency emitted by the RF coil, the MRI machine can look for hydrogen nuclei section by section and so an image can be formed.
seeks out receptors that are found in cancerous cells
nanoparticle coated with a special protein, looks for specific signals given off by tumours
when tumour found, begins to interact with cancerous cells
this interaction strips off the protein coating, causing the nanoparticle to self-assemble into a much larger particle so that it is more visible on the scan
By: Rida Malik
This an image of the brain after an MRI scan.
Full transcript