Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

THE BRAIN

90 - 120 slide presentation for my AP Psychology class.
by

Emily Ju

on 16 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of THE BRAIN

Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Automatic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The Nervous System
A network of communications
consciously controlled muscles
automatic functions
can be consciously overridden
Fight or Flight
Rest and Digest
THE BRAIN
Spinal Cord
Taste
Touch
Sight
Hearing
Smell
SENSORY NEURONS
afferent
take information from sensory organs to CNS
MOTOR NEURONS
efferent
takes orders from CNS to muscles and glands
The control center
an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity.
the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine and connects nearly all parts of the body to the brain.
now we enter ...
the building block
of the
nervous system:
The Neuron
dendrite
soma
axon
terminal
synapse
the "receiver"
the cell body
the "sender"
usually insulated by a myelin sheath
where neurotransmitters are stored and sent
the miniscule gap between neurons
receptor site
where neurotransmitters bind
Action Potential
electrical impulse that goes through the axon
powered by ions
(myelin sheath)
(axon)
Neurotransmitters
chemical messenger
stored in vesicles in the axon terminals
[the impulse reaches the terminal]
exits terminal and leaps across synapse
binds to receptor sites
reabsorbed; reuptake
Put it all together:
3. the neurotransmitter excites or inhibits the neighboring neuron
1. the neuron is excited
2. the action potential travels down the axon
The Other Building Block:
Glial Cells
1:1 Ratio

1. Surround neurons and hold them in place
4. Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.
2. Supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons
3. Insulate one neuron from another
HINDBRAIN
PONS
MEDULLA
CEREBELLUM
BRAINSTEM
RETICULAR FORMATION
10% of the brain's volume, 50% of the brain's neurons
mainly somatic functions
equilibrium and posture
fine tuning movement
coordination
precision
timing
motor learning
conditioning
actions such as:
speaking
writing
climbing a tree
playing an instrument
acts as bridge between the areas of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum
origin of REM sleep
sensory:
facial sensations
hearing
equilibrium
taste
motor:
facial expressions
eye movement
chewing and swallowing
bladder control
posture
respiration
controls many autonomic functions
heartbeat
regulates through receptors:
respiration
blood pressure
reflexes:
vomiting
coughing
sneezing
swallowing
somatic control over:
tone
balance
posture
helps eyes track and fixate upon objects
automatic control over
breathing and swallowing
[the part of the medulla that regulates the heart and blood pressure]
conducts:
visual and auditory signals to the cerebellum
pain signals to the cerebral cortex
[the Gate Theory of pain regulation]
sensory signals
states of consciousness
sleep
alertness
conscious attention
habituation
MIDBRAIN
motivation
motor control
helps relay:
vision
hearing
habituation
temperature regulation
sleeping vs. waking
arousal
LIMBIC SYSTEM
Deals with basic, mostly autonomic functions.
AMYGDALA
HIPPOCAMPUS
emotions
emotional reactions
emotional learning
memory:
especially the emotion-strengthened kind
long-term potentiation
decision-making
involved in:
smell
pheromone-processing
behavioral inhibition theory:
involved in inhibiting responses
memory:
long-term potentiation
long-term memories
conscious recollection
spatial memory
“horse sea monster” in Greek
named after the seahorse for its shape
FOREBRAIN
THALAMUS
HYPOTHALAMUS
relays sensory signals to the correct cortical areas
memory:
spatial
episodic
consciousness:
sleep
alertness
controls the pituitary gland (which in turn controls the endocrine (hormone) system)
circadian and seasonal rhythms
pheromones
autonomic functions
immune system responses (fevers)
CORPUS CALLOSUM
connects the two hemispheres of the brain
The two large hemispheres, consisting of the thin layer of neurons called the cerebral cortex and the underlying white matter.
CEREBRUM
FRONTAL LOBE
PARIETAL LOBE
sensory information:
touch
math
visuospatial processing:
manipulating objects
judgement:
future consequences
choosing between good and bad
socially acceptable
long-term memories:
mostly of the emotional kind
modifies memories to conform to social norms
TEMPORAL LOBE
memories:
contains the hippocampus
visual memories
verbal memories
storing new memories
sensory input:
auditory
visual
deriving meaning:
comprehending language
emotion
OCCIPITAL LOBE
vision
FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF THE
CEREBRAL CORTEX
MOTOR CORTEX
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
AUDITORY CORTEX
VISUAL CORTEX
GUSTATORY CORTEX
OLFACTORY CORTEX
BROCA'S AREA
WERNICKE'S AREA
controls movement
receives touch signals from sensory neurons
receives auditory signals from the ears
receives visual signals from the optic nerves
receives taste signals from taste buds
receives smell signals from olfactory bulbs
helps produce language and communication
deciphers speech and written language
ASSOCIATION AREAS
areas of the brain not limited to basic, motor, or sensory functions
brain plasticity allows these areas to be used for other functions, including those of missing areas if the damage is early or genetic
used for logic, judgement, and "higher thinking"
participates in sensory and motor processes, such as recognizing features and assigning meaning to sensory signals
THE TWO HEMISPHERES
right
left
controls right side of the body
the location of Broca's area and Wernicke's area for 95% of right-handers
linguistics for 90% of right-handers
associated with calcuation, mathematics, and fact retrieval
correlates with enacting routines and habits
controls left side of the body
the location of Broca's area and Wernicke's area for 70% of left-handers
linguistics for ~50% of left-handers
associated with visual, spatial, and auditory processes
correlates with processing new situations
linked with depression and pessimism
WARNING!
Correlations and associations do not mean that all of those processes are conducted in that hemisphere. Both hemispheres play a complex role in all processes.

Don't let pop psychology fool you. The right brain is NOT the "creative brain". The left brain is NOT the "logical brain". These are oversimplifications.
More About: NEUROTRANSMITTERS
The chemical messengers that communicate between neurons.
Many neurotransmitters double as hormones, which are used in the endocrine system and released into the bloodstream.
Neurotransmitters either stimulate or inhibit the neuron whose receptor sites they bind to, influencing whether or not it fires off.

However, the receiving neuron is bombarded by multiple neurotransmitters. The current theory is that until the majority of the signals stimulate the neuron, the inhibiting signals overpower the stimulating ones. It's an all-or-none response; after all, the action potential can't just happen halfway.
How the terminal ends determine which neurotransmitter to release is a still a scientific mystery.
DRUGS
Drugs are chemicals that alter the way a neuron functions. The drugs that dentists and doctors use numb pain, suppressing or blocking the signals.
Some drugs can slip past the blood-brain barrier and affect the neurons in the brain.
There are two types of drugs: agonist, or stimulant, and antagonist, or depressant. Many agonists target the limbic system, especially the endorphic, pleasure-giving, neurotransmitter seratonin. This causes the "high" that is often associated with these drugs.
Case Study: The STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT
When good people are placed in an evil situation, what wins out?
Humanity?
Or malice?
This was the question Philip Zimbardo and his team of researchers unintentially answered when they set up their prison experiment in 1971.
The original goal of the experiment was to find out what the psychological effects were of becoming a prisoner or a prison guard.
THE PARTICIPANTS
70 volunteers answered a newspaper ad.
24 out of the 70 were chosen to participate.
They were randomly assigned into two groups: the prisoners and the guards.
"It is important to remember that at the beginning of our experiment there were no differences between boys assigned to be a prisoner and boys assigned to be a guard."
THE "PRISON"
Originally just a hallway and some laboratories, the "prison" had specially-made barred doors.
The ends of the corridor were boarded up. The corridor itself was the "yard".
Solitary confinement was a closet.
One end of the hallway had a camera; the cells were bugged.
There were no clocks.
THE PROCEDURE
The prisoners were "arrested", held at the police department, then brought to the "prison". Steps were taken to humiliate them: they were stripped, deloused, sprayed down, as though they were believed to have germs or lice.
Their uniforms were smocks, which were to make them feel "emasculated", like real prisoners. They wore a chain around one ankle, stocking caps, and rubber sandals.
Meanwhile, the guards were given freedom to do what they believed necessary to keep order.
They were given identical khaki uniforms and sunglasses.
After a rebellion, the guards teamed up together against the inmates, using psychological tactics to divide them and keep them under control.
Both the prisoners and the guards were entirely into their roles. The guards saw the prisoners as dangerous, aggressive criminals. The prisoners were forced to do pushups, marched with bags over their heads, made to use a bucket instead of the bathroom, forced to clean the toilet bowl with their bare hands, etc.
"There were three types of guards. First, there were tough but fair guards who followed prison rules. Second, there were "good guys" who did little favors for the prisoners and never punished them. And finally, about a third of the guards were hostile, arbitrary, and inventive in their forms of prisoner humiliation."
"Prisoners coped with their feelings of frustration and powerlessness in a variety of ways. At first, some prisoners rebelled or fought with the guards. Four prisoners reacted by breaking down emotionally as a way to escape the situation. One prisoner developed a psychosomatic rash over his entire body when he learned that his parole request had been turned down. Others tried to cope by being good prisoners, doing everything the guards wanted them to do."
THE CONCLUSION
The study ended prematurely. The guards began torturing the prisoners in the middle of the night when they thought no one was watching; the situation had been escalating and getting worse.
"After observing our simulated prison for only six days, we could understand how prisons dehumanize people, turning them into objects and instilling in them feelings of hopelessness. And as for guards, we realized how ordinary people could be readily transformed from the good Dr. Jekyll to the evil Mr. Hyde."
http://www.prisonexp.org/
Full transcript