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How Barbaric Were the Mongols?
Transcript of How Barbaric Were the Mongols?
•They were known for pillage, plunder, and killing in brutal fashion • One important reason for their military success is because of their extremely structured organization. Although they were brutal and not the most scientifically advanced, the Mongols did have a few qualities that showed their "non-Barbarianism":
rigid military structure and brilliant tactics
strict moral policies within the tribes
beneficial economic and industrial influence on conquered territories • The Mongols had achieved the greatest world conquest the world has ever seen, with approximately 2,860,000 square miles of conquered territory. (Document A) •Also, they had absolutely brilliant military tactics. They often preyed on the fears of the enemy and used props to their advantage. •In fact, the Mongols were even advanced enough to use weapons such as Greek fire, and understood enough chemistry to use the tactic of flinging fat into the city to ensure burning. (Document D) •However, are they really as barbaric as we think? •No army that was totally barbaric could fight with such amazing foresight; •The Mongols also had strict moral policies within the tribe On Hospitality:
"...wife must maintain the household, so that the... guest who dismounts there finds all in order...the wife is able to provide him with good food..."
"...show considerable respect to each other...do not easily show impatience
"Whosoever commits adultery will be executed..."
"If a woman...has a husband no one will enter into a relationship with her..."
(Document N) Examples in the Army "...if one or two or ...even more out of a group of ten run away, all are put to death; and if a whole group of ten flees, the rest of the group of a hundred are all put to death, if they do not flee too." (Document C) The Mongols also acknowledged religion, with the religion having their own set of moral rules that influence the Mongols. •The Mongols also had a surprisingly good influence on its conquered territories; they opened up trade, spread religion, and helped certain industries flourish "The Yuan emperors built canals to improve transportation and communication. In China, agriculture and (craft) production...continued unabated."
"(Mongol rulers) were patrons of the arts."
"Persian viniculture thrived under the Mongols"
"Persian silk industry also benefited from the Mongol conquest because of the contacts that opened up with China."
(Document J) "1264 Kubilai grants tax exemption to Buddhist monasteries"
"1266 Kubilai orders construction of new capital city near modern-day Beijing"
"1271 Kubilai puts new legal system in place; reduces capital crimes by half"
"1270's Chinese theater blossoms during Kubilai's reign"
(Document H) The Mongols even accepted every religion, allowing them to reside in peace. "There are twelve pagan (Buddhist) temples belonging to the different nations, two mosques... and one church for the Christians at the far end of town (Karakorum)." (Document G) The reason why trade routes and religion and commerce spread was because of the Mongols. Without them, none of this would have happened.
The Mongols were civilized and had a law code that was fair. Did they really have no culture, no education, and no refinement at all? They were said to be organized in tens; one captain for every ten soldiers, one "captain of a hundred" for ever ten groups, etc. (Document C) If a soldier wearing a silk shirt is hit with an arrow, the silk would be dragged with the arrow head into the wound; then, by pulling out the arrow using the silk, it prevents further injury, thus lessening the damage. (Document B) For example, one of their famed military tactics is the usage of dummy figures and extra people to make the army appear larger, which induces greater fear in the enemy. (Document D) The Mongols were definitely not as barbaric as history tends to portray. Examples of Moral Laws A few examples on the morals in daily life of the Mongols They also had many moral codes involved in their military lives. "We Mongols believe that there is but one God, by Whom we live and by Whom we die and towards Him we have an upright heart. But just as God gave different fingers to the hand so has He given different ways to men." --Mongke Khan (Document M) For Example... Having many moral codes to follow, the Mongols were generally not barbaric in daily life The Mongols recognized and allowed religion to thrive by exempting taxes; also, they made a considerable contribution to Chinese culture by building the Forbidden City and allowing growth in the arts. In the 13th Century... Also... Therefore... Until 1:04