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Atmosphere Forming

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by

Mitchell Parus

on 29 September 2014

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Transcript of Atmosphere Forming

How the First Atmosphere Formed
Lighter elements rose from the core
Just like how ships float
Escaped out from where it was trapped in rocks
Came out through volcanic activities
This is still happening today
At a lesser extent, because there is less trapped gas
Called outgassing
Early Atmosphere Composition
Scientists speculate that the early atmosphere had the same molecules that are in volcanic eruptions today
Water Vapor
This quickly condensed and started cooling off the surface
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
And other trace elements
Abundance of Oxygen in the Atmosphere
Oxygen first produced around 3.5 billion years ago
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
stromatolite structures
oxygen soaked up in iron -> iron oxide
About 2.45 billion years ago - Great Oxidation Event
2 billion years ago - abundant in atmosphere
Earth VS Mars and Venus
Credits
blogs.vmware.com
sweetclipart.com
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origin-of-oxygen-in-atmosphere/
http://provincelake.org/2013/07/11/nh-des-issues-cyanobacteria-warning-71113/
http://www.aquascapingworld.com/algaepedia/full_view_algae.php?item_id=40
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/venus/atmosphere.html
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/atmospheric_pressure.html
http://www.space.com/18527-venus-atmosphere.html
https://www.google.com/search?q=atmosphere+of+venus+vs+earth&safe=active&espv=2&biw=1315&bih=681&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=yZogVLmIGs-iyASL-YLQAg&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=i236uw41842NbM%253A%3BivgURro3zH_p9M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fastronomy.nju.edu.cn%252F~lixd%252FGA%252FAT4%252FAT409%252FIMAGES%252FAACHCRX0.JPG%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fastronomy.nju.edu.cn%252F~lixd%252FGA%252FAT4%252FAT409%252FHTML%252FAT40905.htm%3B496%3B321
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Earth Science Textbook
http://science.howstuffworks.com/mars5.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Oxygenation_Event
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/study-suggests-clay-paved/
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/origin-of-oxygen-in-atmosphere/
http://www.apg29.nu/cbild/vulkan-1391372191.JPG
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/breathing-easy-thanks-to-great-oxid-09-04-13/
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/earth_timeline/first_life#default
Timeline
Thanks For watching!
Any questions or comments...?
The Formation of
the Earth's Atmosphere
Venus
Mars
A little over 95% Carbon dioxide
2.7% Nitrogen
Too little Oxygen - only 0.13%
Only 0.03% Water Vapor
6.1 millibars of surface pressure exerted on average
Very thin atmosphere that doesn't hold heat or solar enegry
No liquid water - either ice, snow, or vapor
Carbon dioxide freezes and falls as snow in martian winter
Earth
A little less than 1% Carbon dioxide
78% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen
Almost 1% water vapor
Sea level atmospheric pressure on average is 1013.25 millibars.
Atmosphere traps and keeps heat
Deflects meteors and the ozone deflects harmful radiation
Mostly Carbon dioxide - 96%
Only 3.5% Nitrogen
Water vapor, argon, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide make up less than 1%
Under 90,000 millibars of surface pressure
Clouds are constantly being moved
With wind speed up to 360 km per hour
Earth's earliest atmosphere
Atmosphere as Earth cooled
Swept away by particles from the sun - solar wind.
Surface developing
Atmosphere composed of gases produced by outgassing
Planet continued to cool
Water vapor condensed
Rain poured and created oceans
CO2 dissolved in oceans
Nitrogen filled atmosphere remained
Through photosynthesis, plants took in CO2 and gave out Oxygen
This significantly changed the composition of the atmosphere
Oxygen produced didn't remain free
Iron oxidized or rusted (banded iron formation)
After all available iron rusted, oxygen stayed free
0.54 Billion years ago
4.54 Billion years ago
Current Composition
By: Sahana Sreeprakash, Jamie Ko, and Mitchel Parus
Primitive Organisms &
Evolution of Atmosphere
Nickels and methanogens
Green plants/cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) - photosynthesis
water vapor, CO2, N -> O
Stromatolites - record evidence
Organisms consuming O appeared
Oxygen -> now balanced
Full transcript