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Non Verbal Communication

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Marisa Grady

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Non Verbal Communication

Non Verbal Communication

That's right - non verbal means "without words"
Nonverbal communication is a vital form of communication. When we interact with others, we continuously give and receive wordless signals. The gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close we stand, how much eye contact we
make send strong messages.

Five Functions
of Nonverbal Communication

FORMS OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR
BODY MOTIONS
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TOUCH
SPACE
PARALANGUAGE
ARTIFACTS
ENVIRONMENT
TIME
The way you listen, look, move, and react tell the other person whether or not you care and how much you're listening. The nonverbal signals you send either produce a sense of interest, trust, and desire for connection
...or they generate disinterest, distrust and confusion....or at the very least a desire to punch somebody.
Research indicates we spend more of our time communicating non verbally than verbally:
a study from 2007 found that both men and women average around 16,000 spoken words per day.
the average spoken sentence is 2.5 seconds long
In a normal, two person conversation 60-90% of meaning is transmitted through nonverbal behavior.
In addition, most research indicates that nonverbal behavior is considered to be superior to verbal communication.
one study indicates that nonverbal behaviors are more powerful than their verbal counterparts
studies also reveal that we tend to trust nonverbal messages much more than verbal messages especially when they conflict.
Nonverbal cues can repeat the message the person is making verbally - if this young man is saying "Squash!" excitedly - then his facial expression repeats that message.
Repetition
Nonverbal cues can give the opposite message of verbal messages - For example the Joker has a permanent smile carved into his face but that often contradicts his menacing verbal messages.
CONTRADICTION
Nonverbal cues can take the place of a verbal message. If someone holds their finger to their mouth you probably get the hint that they are "shushing" you whether it is accompanied by that sound or not.
Substitution
Nonverbal cues may add to or enhance a verbal message. If this nice young man says "It's nice to meet you!" Then smiles and extends his hand - his nonverbal
cues are complementing what he is expressing
verbally.
Complementing
Nonverbal cues can be used to control the flow of communication. When you raise your hand in class to be called on - you are using a nonverbal cue that allows the teacher to regulate the conversation.
Regulating
PROXEMICS
PROXEMICS
The way we use space and distance when we are communicating. The tendency to identify space as "our own" is an aspect of proxemics called:


TERRITORIALITY
Our use of space can be affected by...

Status - people of different status tend to stay further apart than people of perceived equal status
Culture - people use space differently based on the culture they grew up in
Context - situational differences may dictate our use of space
KINESICS
-THE STUDY OF BODY MOTIONS AND MOVEMENTS
gestures that translate directly into words
ok
thumbs up - good job
We're #1
hook 'em horns
hang loose
peace sign
other misc. derogatory gestures
EMBLEM
accent, reinforce or emphasize verbal message
Illustrators
Express emotion
smiling
frowning
slouching
jumping up and down
fist pump
touchdown dance
AFFECT DISPLAYS
control, monitor, or maintain interaction
eye contact
nodding head
raising hand
Regulators
help one feel at ease in a speaking situation
hands in pockets
playing with clothing
swaying
ADAPTORS
playing with coins
fiddling with pen
Gesticulation
non-specific hand movements that accompany speech
The way we say what we say
Paralanguage refers to the vocal aspect of communication.
Vocal elements of language differ from verbal elements.
In this way: vocal elements involve sound and its manipulation for certain desired and undesired effects.
So...how do we communicate nonverbals in the absence of physical presence?
Good question, students.

Internet messages and texts have given rise to new ways to communicate non verbals in the absence of an available person to provide us with "standard" kinesics.

Thusly, we have the emoticon. And the overuse to the point of exhaustion of certain punctuation marks!!!!
Ponder for a moment the following...
If you receive a text message or e-mail from a friend how do you interpret the following:
Friend: I'm looking forward to it!
vs
Friend: How exciting.

(we now read a lack of exclamation point to mean a lack of friendliness and the absence of an exclamation point can indicate sarcasm)
Another example:

I'm totally serious.

vs.

I'm totally serious ;)
I'm entirely sure that "winky face" has ruined more than one friendship...especially since it's easy to accidentally include a wink instead of the basic smiley emoticon.

Emoticons and punctuation in these situations are substitutions for real time nonverbal communication.


Internet memes also play into the absence of nonverbals online by providing "reaction faces"
The vocal aspect, or paralinguistic element, is the
sound
of the word when uttered: the inflection of the voice, the pitch, the volume, pace, emphasis, pause, etc.
In speaking, both language (verbal aspects or words) and paralanguage (vocal aspects or sounds) play significant roles in conveying our meaning.
Paralanguage also gives insight into the emotions you are feeling.
Let's demonstrate:


"I REALLY LOVE YOU."
you really do love the other person
you despise the other person
you are desperate because the other person
is leaving you
FLUENCY
Fluent speakers are in control of their words (verbal elements) and the way they use them (vocal elements).
The diction or word choice (verbal control) of good speakers effectively conveys the concept, illustration or detail essential to the purpose of the presentation
In addition, fluent speakers project their confidence vocally through effective use of pauses, tone, vocal elongation, volume, pitch, etc.
Interjections

Um...
Uh...
Errr...
Ahh...
Filler Words

Like
I mean
Whatever
And

Checkbacks

You know?
Right?
Okay?
Got it?
Dialects, or regional differences in speech patterns, also play a role in our understanding.
We often make judgements about people based solely on their paralanguage.
Linguistic discrimination

When impressionists are successful, they are playing largely on the characteristics of paralanguage.
Artifacts
personal adornments which communicate information about a person

includes clothes, perfume, makeup, beards, automobiles, etc.
may communicate age, gender, role, class, group membership, personality, relation to others, etc.
the physical and psychological surroundings in which communication occurs
Environment
environment serves nonverbally because it considers how we manipulate our surroundings to communicate something about ourselves
considers such elements as:
furniture
architectural design
lighting conditions
temperature
colors
smells and sounds
also the attitudes, feelings, perceptions, and relationships of the communicators
for example, in the movies and theater, lighting and setting are critical components of the physical environment, but the music helps set the psychological environment.
A library is a great place to read a book - not a great place to play indoor soccer or hold a pep rally.
Julian Treasure is the chairman of an audio branding company - in this TED talk he addresses how sound in our environment affects us when we try to communicate.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
A person's physical characteristics have a large impact on communication because we are highly visual creatures and because
visual data is the most immediate information we receive
about someone.
Think of all the people you know and compare that to the number of people on this planet. Of course, you know a very small percentage.
However, you can
instantly recognize a known face
in a crowd. You may not know the person's name, but you will know if you have seen that person before. This is an amazing feat, considering that all faces are essentially the same. (two eyes, mouth, nose, etc.)
Although it is not always fair, it has been documented that
we stereotype others based on immediate, visual impressions
. It has been found that people respond
more favorably to individuals who are attractive, clean, well groomed and well dressed.
This works well for people in business...
and serial killers...
Other stereotypes have been found to be based on
body shape
. You may be limited in your control over your body style, but awareness of these assumptions may explain why certain people react the way they do.
ENDOMORPH

Many people identify what George Carlin would not call "People of Size" or fat people as being more talkative, good natured, dependent and trusting.
ECTOMORPH
On the other hand, thin people are sometimes seen as more ambitious, more tense, stubborn, pessimistic and quiet.
Muscular people are thought to be more adventurous and mature.
MESOMORPH
These things are not always true or fair, but these prejudices have been found to exist.
One researcher, Dr. Stephen Marquardt, has studied human beauty for years is his practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Marquardt performed cross-cultural surveys on beauty and found that all groups had virtually the same perception of facial beauty.

He also analyzed the human face from ancient times to the modern day. His research contends facial beauty is based on mathematics...specifically the
GOLDEN RATIO
It's also called
phi
and is approximately equal to 1 : 1.618
Marquardt contends beauty can be defined for both genders and for all races, cultures, and eras, and that you can measure it with a beauty mask he developed based on shapes exhibiting the Golden Ratio.
goldennumber.net - Marquardt's website with more information
THE BEAUTY MASK
TODAY
Nefertiti
1350 B.C.
Egypt
500 B.C.
Greece
1794
ANTHROPOMORPHISM
Open office designs - like this one - have been shown (as Julian Treasure mentioned) to decrease productivity among workers. The idea behind these designs was to foster collaboration. Instead everyone is just distracted by their coworkers.
Similarly, open classroom designs were
envisioned for the purpose of opening
up students' creativity and collaboration
but depending on the design of the
classroom can be a cause of student
distraction.
Giving human characteristics to animals, inanimate objects, or natural phenomena is a human trait called "to anthropomorphize"
This term anthropomorphism was coined by the Greek philosopher Xenophanes when describing the similarity between religious believers and their gods - that is, Greek gods were depicted having light skin and blue eyes while African gods had dark skin and brown eyes.
"What you are speaks so
loudly that I cannot hear what
you say" - Emerson
"No mortal can keep a secret. If
his lips are silent, he chatters
with his fingertips." - Freud
awww sad
Does your room look like this? If so is it easy to communicate in here??
Or how about this?
Difference between anthropomorphism and personification
Personification: the rendering in absolute
human terms of an abstract idea - i.e. Father
Christmas, Death

Anthropomorphism: to attribute human traits
to otherwise non-human (but not abstract)
beings
Anthropomorphism carries many implications. For example, thinking of a non-human entity in human ways renders it worthy of moral care and consideration. In addition, anthropomorphized entities become responsible for their own actions - that is they are deserving of punishment or reward.

Western culture is preoccupied with time.
CHRONEMICS
We save time, spend time,
waste time...

"You're living on borrowed time"
"Is that worth your while?"
"You need to budget your time."
We base all our activities around the clock: starting time, dinner time, naptime, play time, game time
we often judge people by their use of time - students are expected to be "on time" for class....those who are punctual are perceived as responsible and interested - those who are tardy
are inversely considered irresponsible and
perhaps lazy and unintelligent.
Perceptions about time usage and value
are culturally based.
Polychronic
describes a preference for doing several things at once. Italy and Brazil are polychronic

Monochronic
refers to an individual's preference
to do their activities one by one. The U.S. and Germany are monochronic cultures.

People from
monochronic
cultures prefer
promptness, careful planning
and rigid commitment to plans.


People from polychronic cultures tend to prioritize relationships over tasks and do no consider commitments to be binding.
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