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The Rock cycle and how the flow of energy drives the cycling of matter

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Emmilly Aguirre

on 12 June 2013

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Transcript of The Rock cycle and how the flow of energy drives the cycling of matter

The shield volcano
composite volcano
The Rock Cycle and how the Flow of Energy Drives the cycling of Matter
Pillow lava!
Pillow lava
is formed under water. When an underwater volcanoes erupts, the lava is cooled almost instantly by the water. Then, air gets trapped underneath it. This is what creates the pillow shape! Slow
gives enough time for a thick crust to form on all sides of a pillow lobe, and prevents individual pillows from
into a sheet. Internally the pillows are fed from a
system of interconnected channels.
Explaining the Rock Cycle in More Depth.
Sedimentary Rocks and Metamorphic Rocks
Sedimentary rocks form when small fragments of solid natural material are pressed and compacted together. Usually heat is a big part of making these rocks. This is because sediment, such as shells and sand are easier to be packed together with heat as well as a lot of pressure.
This is a common sedimentary rock made out of sand and other small rocks.
Metamorphic Rock
Metamorphic rocks are formed under the earths surface when change occurs because of an intense amount of heat. Before the rocks are heated though, they are either Sedimentary or Igneous rocks!
"Meta"means 'change' in Greek. This refers to the change the occurs under the surface."Morph" means 'form' in Greek.
Sediment (the base of sedimentary) is pieces and fragments of materials.
This is an average looking piece of metamorphic rock called slate.
By: Chris Hecht, Melissa Guzzi, Hadley Miller, Emmilly Aguirre, and Ryan Armbruster
The Flow of Energy Drives the Cycling of Matter...
One example is the sun
The sun's radiation comes
to earth...

(that's the energy)
Energy also
powers the
rock cycle.
If you don't know that things like cooling and melting are related to energy by now, you haven't been paying attention for the past month!
The three types of volcanoes
The cinder cone volcano is made of lava that solidifies and is piled up until it has created a mound around the volcanoes vent.
The volcano is very dark compared to everything else that you can see in the landscape. why do you think that is?
Igneous Rocks
Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are two types:

Intrusive igneous rocks: diorite, gabbro, granite and pegmatite that solidify below Earth's surface

Extrusive igneous rocks: andesite, basalt, obsidian, pumice, rhyolite and scoria that solidify on or above Earth's surface
is a type of igneous rock.
In addition to granite there are many other types of igneous rocks. See diagram to the left.
...and powers everything from our food to our weather.
As you know, there are 3 types of energy.
We will review them quickly before we go on.
* Cementing is when rocks settle to the bottom of the ocean and then they are pressed together and become sedimentary rocks.
We already have a prezi about this, but since we did it so long ago we'll do a quick review.
Radiation can travel through vacuums. The object producing radiation and the object(s) absorbing it don't have to have anything in between them to transfer heat. There are 4 different kinds of radiation: Alpha Radiation, Beta Radiation, X-ray Radiation, and Gamma Radiation.
Convection spreads throughout fluids.
Convection happens when a fluid is heated somehow (ex. water). The fluid becomes less dense and floats to the top, where it becomes cooler and heads back down. The same thing happens to other fluid in a
until the temperature is balanced.
Conduction is what happens when heat transfer occurs between two objects that are touching each other. If you looked under a microscope, you would see the atoms colliding with each other as the heat transfer happened.
Energy that is created by the rock cycle can also drive volcanoes. Since the magma inside the magma chamber is less dense than the rock it will tend to float up. Also magma contains water and gasses the water will super heat and form steam and it will all escape through the vent in the volcano because it will want to expand.
Volcanoes are holes in the crust of the earth that allow magma and gases to escape from the earth. the escaped magma turns into lava, which turns into igneous rocks. As you can see, volcanoes are very important in the rock cycle.
Why do volcanoes erupt
*Melting is when the rocks get heated a lot and they start to turn into magma.
* The heat comes from the core and the rocks (as the get heated) form into different kinds of rocks and go deeper in the earth and sink closer to the center of the earth. The metamorphic rock melts into magma.
In case you were wondering ...
A cycle is a process that keeps repeating itself. Or is repeated.
so, what does energy affect?
*Cooling is when magma cools slowly underneath the earth and it hardens into igneous rock.
Weather & Climate
and pretty much everything else
Hechtor Magnifier
What do you think is the most common rock to see on a daily basis?
Specific types of Metamorphic rocks
Heat and Pressure
*Heat and pressure is when igneous rock turns into metamorphic rock by heat pushing down on the igneous and the pressure builds up on the rock so much that it turns into a metamorphic rock.
Weathering and Erosion
*Weathering and Erosion is when rocks are eroded and washed away by wind and water.
*When it rains and when it is windy, little rocks fall or are broken away from a larger rock. Those little rocks are washed away.
What Sedimentary Rocks can be made out of!
Understanding the rock cycle...
Think of what would happen if we didn't have the sun...
The shield volcano follows the same principals as the cinder cone but it has a different shape.
Metamorphic Rocks!!!
Chances are that you have probably seen things like slate and marble (like the one one the left) in houses, restaurants and other places that you would visit!
An active shield volcano is made up of almost entirely of liquid or solid lava. It has a gradual lope on its sides unlike the cinder cone and in some of the larger volcanoes, it can have a diameter of 4 to 5 miles.
Composite volcanoes are steeply sided volcanoes that are created when lava flows for a longer period of time down the mountain.
Key Terms Just In Case
Pillow lava-
Lava that has solidified as rounded masses, characteristic of eruption under water


Derived from magma poured out or ejected at the earth's surface. Used of igneous rocks.

an out flowing branch of a stream or river, typically found in a delta.


Come together and form one mass or whole
After this step in the cycle comes a certain type of rock.
This is an example of pillow lava
The Flow of Energy Drives the Cycling of Matter; The Rock Cycle.
This is talking about the rock cycle but lets focus on this section.
Although this is blurry this is one of the key points talking about the magma coming from the core/mantle.
If it goes straight up it becomes extrusive igneous rock. This usually comes out of a normal volcano.
Remember, the
food chain is

If it goes this way and takes a turn it goes through crystallization and becomes Intrusive igneous and usually comes out of a underwater volcano.
The cinder cone volcano
The sun's energy makes
things like carrots grow
Sedimentary Rocks
Weather & Climate
Everything on Earth
First you need to know what volcanoes are.
Full transcript