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Constructing and using questionnaires and interview schedule

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on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Constructing and using questionnaires and interview schedule

Constructing and using questionnaires and interview schedules by Tuckman 1999
Question formats
Conclusion
Questionnaires and Interviews
Both instruments help researchers to convert the information they receive from people or the research subjects into data.
These instruments allow investigators to measure what someone knows , what someone likes and dislikes , and what someone thinks
Constructing a questionnaire or interview
To construct a questionnaire or interview scale, a researcher completes the following five steps: (a) specifying the variables to be measured, or what she or he wants to find out; (b) choosing the question format(s) after considering the relative merits of each; (e) choosing the response modes depending on the type of data desired; (d) preparing either interview or questionnaire
items; (e) pilot testing the instrument and evaluating the results using item
analysis.
Sampling procedures
Sampling procedures begins with a definition of a study's population (setting
its boundary characteristics). From this group, the researcher then draws a
sample through simple random or stratified random sampling techniques,
the latter requiring the establishment of sampling specifications. This careful
process helps researchers to avoid subject selection bias that can affect external
validity or generality.
Response Modes:
How to answer the questions
Unstructured Responses.-allows subjects to give a response in whatever form they choose.
Administration of a questionnaire requires (a) an initial mailing to a sample
of respondents, accompanied by a cover letter to describe the study's purpose,
protective measures for respondents, endorsements, legitimacy, debriefing,
needed cooperation, and special instructions; (b) one or more follow ups
to those who do not respond; (c) a systematic attempt to get responses
from 5 to 10 percent of the remaining non respondents (to evaluate the degree
of potential mortality bias).
Predetermined Versus Response-Keyed Questions
Questions and statements
Questions of facts and opinions
Direct and Indirect
Specific and nonspecific
-Do you like your job?
- What do you think of your job?
(specifically) how much she likes a particular teacher.
(nonspecifically) how satisfied she feels with a particular class taught by the teacher.
-which car do you owe?
-which brand do you prefer? Ford or Chevrolet?
• Do you think that the school day should be lengthened?
YES
NO
• The school day should be shortened.
AGREE
DISAGREE
Some questionnaires predetermine the number of questions to be answered; they require respondents to complete all items.
a keyed item may ask a respondent if he is a college graduate. If the response is no, the respondent is instructed to skip the next question. The decision whether or not to answer the question is keyed to the response to the previous question.
Fill-In Response.-restricts the number of possible responses and the number of words that respondents use.
Tabular Response.-imposes somewhat more structure because respondents have to place their answers in a table.
Scaled Response.-establishes a scale on which respondents express endorsement or rejection of an attitude or statement.
Ranking Response.-them to give critical estimates of the values of the alternatives.
Checklist Response.-select one of the possible choices offered.
Categorical Response.-offers a respondent
only two possibilities for each item.
Conducting an interview study requires (a) selection and training of interviewers
and (b) interviewing a sample of respondents.
You have to follow certain steps in order to construct the best questionnaire or interview questions for your research. You have to keep in mind what information you and and how you need it. In that way you will might have less difficulties when working on you questionnaires and interviews.
if you test your interviews and questionnaires and you get the information you need and don't need to make any changes, then you are ready to apply them!
Interview and questionnaire responses become usable data only after scoring
or coding.
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