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Earth Science Review

Review project for Earth Science

Cady Bailey

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Earth Science Review

Science Review
by Cady Bailey
Scientific Inquiry
Scientific Method
Metric System
Rock Cycle
Plate Tectonics
Layers of the Earth
Extreme Storms
Water Cycle
River Stages
Ocean Layers
Human Population Growth
Movement of Earth
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
The Sun
Ecological Footprint
Table of Contents
1: Question
Does music help a plant grow?
Does adding salt to water make it boil slower?
Does food coloring affect the taste of cake?
What brand of laundry detergent works best on ketchup stains?
Will adding baking soda to cat litter eliminate the smell?
2: Hypothesis
If I add food coloring to cake, then the taste will not be affected
If I play music to plants, then they will grow more than ones that did not have music
If I add salt to water, then it will boil slower than fresh water
3. Design and Conduct
-4 cake mixes and
listed ingredients
-Red, green, and blue
food coloring
-4 baking dishes
-Measuring cups/spoons
Make all four cake mixes in separate batches.
Leave 1 batch of batter alone. Add 20 drops of red food coloring to one batch, 20 drops of green to another, and 20 drops of blue to the last.
Bake cakes in separate pans
Have at least 5 people taste all three cakes blindfolded. Ask them which ones they thought had food coloring and if any tasted different. Record data.
4. Analyze Data
Cake Type
Number of people who tasted a difference
5. Conclusion
The hypothesis that if food coloring was added to cake then the taste would not be affected was incorrect. Only two people said the plain cake tasted different, whereas 5 people said the green cake tasted different, 4 people said the red cake tasted different, and 3 people said the blue cake tasted different. Green food coloring affected the taste the most, while blue affected it the least.
6. Share Data
News Flash: Green food coloring makes cake taste different
New study shows green food coloring affects taste of cake.
Click link for more information
Bar graphs show amounts or frequencies of something. The example graph shows the preference of sports for eighth grade girls and boys. 39 boys and 18 girls chose basketball as their favorite, 35 boys and 15 girls chose badminton, and 30 boys and 10 girls chose volleyball
Bar graphs show change over time. They are commonly used to show precipitation, temperature, speed, etc. over time. The example shows rainfall amounts for two cities.
Mili: 1/1000 or .001
Milimeter: mm
Mililiter: mL
Miligram: mg.
Centi: 1/100 or .01
Centimeter: cm
Centiliter: cL
Centigram: cg
Deci: 1/10 or .1
Decimeter: dm
Deciliter: dL
Decigram: dg
Base Unit: 1
Meter (distance)
Liter (volume)
Gram (mass)
Deka: 10
Dekameter: Dm
Dekaliter: DL
Deagram: Dg

Hecta: 100
Hectameter: hm
Hectaliter: hL
Hectagram: hg
Kilo: 1,000
Kilometer: km
Kiloliter: kL
Kilogram: kg
10 g. .01kg

841 mm. .0841Dm.

23 cL. 230 mL.

87 km. 8,700 m.

345 hg. 34,500 g.

456 L. 456,000 mL.
Formed from HEAT and PRESSURE.
Can be
(layered in sheets) or

(Not layered)
Formed from melting and cooling cooling of mineral material
INtrusive igneous
formed INside a volcano. Larger crystals

Extrusive igneous:

formed outside a volcano. Smaller crystals
Formed by
of larger sediments
Divergent Boundary
Convergent Boundary
Transform Boundary
Not the book
Pulling apart of crust
Creates new crust
Seafloor Spreading: oceanic plates move apart and new ocean floor is built by cooling lava
Continental Rift Valley: forms where 2 continental plates pull apart
Plates push together
2: Oceanic to Oceanic
One oceanic plate is subducted under another oceanic plate
Forms a deep ocean trench and volcanic island arch
1: Oceanic to Continental
Oceanic crust is subducted under continental crust.
Forms a deep ocean trench and continental volcanic arc
Subducted = pulled under
3: Continental to Continental
Continental crust collides with continental crust
Forms Mountains
3 Types:
Oceanic to Continental
Oceanic to Oceanic
Continental to Continental
Plates rub against each other, creating a fault.
Ex: San Andres Fault
-1,800 miles thick

-Temperatures range from 1600 degrees Fahrenheit at the top to 4000 degrees Fahrenheit at the bottom

-Made of melted rock
-Outermost layer of the Earth

-About 25 miles thick under continents

-3-5 miles thick under oceans

-Broken into tectonic plates

-Plates float on the mantle
Outer Core
-Begins 1,800 miles below the surface

-1,400 miles deep

-Temperatures range from 4000 degrees F to 9000 degrees F

-All materials are in a liquid state
Can be
The cycle of destruction and formation for the 3 major rock types
Theory of plate tectonics:
Explains the formation and movement of the tectonic plates which make up Earth's crust
Continental drift hypothesis:
states that the continents had once been joined in a single supercontinent (Pangaea) and began to break apart 200 million years ago to form present day land masses
Inner Core
-Begins 4000 miles below the crust

-Temperatures as high as 9000 degrees F

-Solid due to high pressure
Tropo = change
Closest to Earth
Weather occurs in this layer
Temperature increases with height
Strato = spread out
Contains the ozone layer, which absorbs UV rays from the sun
Where airplanes fly on long distance flights
Meso = middle
Coldest temperatures in the atmosphere
Meteors burn up due to friction
Thermo = temperature
2 sub-layers:
Exosphere: contains satellites
Ionosphere: contains auroras
Warm front
Warm air goes up and over cold air
Cold Front
Cold air forces warm air out
Occluded Front
Warm air mass is cut off from the ground by 2 cold air masses
Stationary Front
2 air masses meet and neither move
An intense tropical low pressure area with winds starting at 75mph.
middle, calm are of a hurricane (falling pressure
Eye Wall:
surrounds the eye. Most violent winds in the storm
Storm Surge:
Water currents formed when hurricane piles water up along the shore and blow it inland
Ranked using the Saffir-Simpson scale
Surface Run-off
Always icy
Little percipitation
Little to no vegetation
Little precipitation
Low biodiversity
Taiga/Boreal Forest
Short, warm summers
Long winters
Mostly evergeen trees
Animals are well adapted to cold climate
Moderate precipitation
Snowy winters
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Milder, shorter winters
Trees shed leaves in fall
Moderate precipitation
Hot year round
Heavy precipitation
Diverse wildlife
Few trees, mostly grass
Erratic precipitation
Frequent droughts
Generally warm
Warm in the day
Cold at night
Little/no precipitation
one organism feeds on another organism
Bears eat fish
Owls eat mice
Snakes eat frogs
Population growth is exponential.
Jump in human population in recent years can be attributed to technological and medical advancement
Earth's orbit is elliptical
One revolution around the sun takes 365.25 days
One rotation around Earth's axis takes 24 hours, or 1 day
1. Planets orbit the sun in an ellipse
2. Planets move fastest when they are closest to the sun in their orbit due to the sun's gravitational pull
3. Planets move slowest when they are furthest from the sun in their orbit
Hottest area of the sun
Made of plasma
Fueled by nuclear fusion
Hydrogen atoms are fused to make helium atoms
Radiation Zone
Energy is transported through electromagnetic radiation
Convection Zone
Cooler temperature than the radiation zone
Mass movement of plasma
Coolest area of the sun
Considered the surface of the sun
Appears yellow in color
2169 kg. of CO2 a year
Majority of CO2 usage comes from traveling to school and watching television.
Slightly over average of 2 tons
How does your ecological footprint relate to global warming?
Carbon in the atmosphere holds radiation from the sun in, causing Earth to get warmer.

1. Give an example of a hypothesis for the following question: What type of flower are bees most attracted to?

2. What are the three types of sedimentary rock?

3.In which layer of the atmosphere are the auroras?

4. In which layer of the ocean do creatures use bioluminescence due to the darkness?

5. Describe the tropical biome

6. Name and describe the process that goes on in the core of the sun
1. Youthful
Erodes rapidly
Few tributaries
V-shaped cut in ground
Waterfalls and rapids
2. Mature River
Slow erosion
U shaped cut in ground
Holds lots of water
3. Old-Age River
No erosion
Gradual slowing in velocity
More meandering
Intertidal Zone
Sometimes underwater, sometimes exposed
Organisms adapted to changing environment
Neritic Zone
Shallow water, high oxygen, lots of sunlight
Extends from low tide line to continental shelf
Bathyal Zone
Known as the midnight zone
Extends from 1000m-4000m deep
No sunlight
Average Temperature: 4 degrees Celsius/39 degrees Fahrenheit
Abyssal Zone
Extends from 4000m-6000m deep
No sunlight
Avg. temperature 39 degrees F/ 4 degrees C
Hadal Zone
Extends from 6000m deep to lowest parts of the ocean
Avg. Temperature: 35 degrees F/ 2 degrees C
Most creatures use bioluminescence since it's so dark
Slides 3-20: Scientific Inquiry
Slides 21-38: Geosphere
Slides 39-48: Atmosphre
Slides 49-60: Hydrosphere
Slides 61-70: Biosphere
Slides 71-78: Astronomy
Slide 79: Ecological Footprint
Slides 80-81: Review Questions
Narrow, funnel-shaped column of spinning air
Categorized using the Enhance Fujita Scale (F-scale)
1. If five types of flowers are placed side by side then bees will be most attracted to peonies

2. Clastic, Organic, Chemincal

3. Ionosphere

4. Hadal Zone

5. Hot, heavy precipitation

6. Nuclear fusion. Hydrogen atoms fuse together to form helium atoms
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