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Camiley and Katie

on 19 June 2013

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Transcript of Bubbles


What are Bubbles?
A bubble is a thin film of soapy water. Most of the bubbles that you see are filled with air, but you can make a bubble using other gases, such as carbon dioxide. The film that makes the bubble has three layers. A thin layer of water is sandwiched between two layers of soap molecules.
Types of bubbles
There are 3 types of bubbles:
Liquid bubbles, anti-bubbles, and soap bubbles.
Liquid bubbles
A liquid bubble is a globule of one substance in another in a liquid.
Liquid bubbles are seen in many places in everyday life, for example:
As carbon dioxide in soft drinks
As water vapor in boiling water
As air mixed into running water, like below a waterfall
As given off in chemical reactions, e.g. baking soda + vinegar
Soap Bubbles (Part 1)
Also, bubbles contain soap. Soap molecules are composed of long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms. In a soap-and-water solution the greasy ends of the soap molecule do not want to be in the liquid at all. Those that find their way to the surface squeeze their way between the surface water molecules, pushing their greasy ends out of the water. This separates the water molecules from each other. Since the surface tension forces become smaller as the distance between water molecules increases, the middle soap molecules decrease the surface tension. If that penny mentioned earlier were lightly touched with a slightly soapy finger, the pile of water would immediately spill over the edge of the penny because the surface tension "skin" is no longer able to support the weight of the water because the soap molecules separated the water molecules.Because the greasy end of the soap molecule sticks out from the surface of the bubble, the soap film is somewhat protected from evaporation because grease doesn't evaporate. This prolongs the life of the bubble.
By: Camiley Legerme
What is so fascinating about bubbles? Maybe it’s the sphere shape, the beautiful colours that swirl and shimmer, its extraordinary delicateness, or maybe, a combination of all these things? Why does a bubble form a sphere at all? Why not a cube, prism, or other shape? Let's look at the things that form bubbles.
As you know, Bubbles contain water. In the water, at least a few molecules away from the surface, every molecule is engaged in a tug of war with its neighbors on every side. At the surface things are different. There is no tug of war, since there is no liquid above the surface; thus the surface molecules tend to be pulled back into the liquid. It takes work to pull a molecule up to the surface. If the surface is stretched - as when you blow up a bubble - it becomes larger in area, and more molecules are dragged from the liquid to become part of this increased area. This "stretchy skin" effect is called surface tension. Surface tension plays an important role in the way liquids behave. If you put water on a penny carefully, it will look like this because of surface tension.
An anti-bubble is the opposite of a bubble. A soap bubble in air is a thin film of liquid surrounding air. An anti-bubble in liquid is a thin film of air surrounding liquid. An anti-bubble is different than an ordinary air bubble in liquid. An ordinary air bubble is simply some air surrounded by liquid. An anti-bubble has liquid inside and outside. They form when a water droplet presses through the surface with a thin coating of air.
Soap Bubbles (Part 2)
Why is a bubble round?
A bubble is very thin skin surrounding a volume of air, like a balloon. The rubber skin of a balloon is elastic and stretches when inflated. If you let the mouthpiece of a balloon go free, the rubber skin squeezes the air out of the balloon and it deflates as it flies around the room. The same thing happens if you start blowing a bubble and then stop. The liquid skin of the bubble is stretchy, somewhat like a thin piece of rubber, and like a balloon it pushes the air out of the bubble, leaving a flat circle of soap in the bubble wand. Unlike a sheet of rubber that when not stretched loses all tension, a bubble always has its "stretch" no matter how small the surface becomes. If you blow a bubble and close the opening by flipping the wand over, the tension in the bubble skin tries to shrink the bubble into a shape with the smallest possible surface area for the volume of air it contains. That shape happens to be a sphere, which is why bubbles are in a sphere shape.
Who Invented bubbles?
Mrs. James MacNaughton lived in Phoenix with her husband and children. The MacNaughton children loved bubbles. After a while both children became sick. It began with sores in the mouths which lead to serious irritation of their stomach and bowels. The youngest boy got so sick that it began to threaten his life. After examining the cause of the illness, Mrs. James MacNaughton assumed that her children were getting sick from the poison in the soap. Instead of blowing out the bubbles, the boy would inhale the foam, thus, taking the poisonous substance in his body. After spending many days in the hospital, James MacNaughton was able to see her son through his illness. Upon his recovery, the boy begged for his bubbles. This began James MacNaughton’s search of a solution. After 3 years of trial and error, James MacNaughton was able to create a solution that was safe for children. And so, the bubble was born.
Why do bubbles pop?
Bubbles pop when they touch a dry surface. Dry surfaces usually cause a soap bubble to pop,while wet surfaces don't. Bubbles also pop when the water evaporates from the surface. As the water evaporates, the soap film wall becomes thin enough for the air to escape. The reason they pop when they touch your hands is because your hands are have dirt and oil on them, which is a bubble's worst enemy. Wind, dry air and sun cause the evaporation of water to happen more quickly. Bubbles pop in the air because the air within the bubble warms up with the sun hitting it or if the surrounding air is warmer than the air within the bubble. As the air warms up it expands, causing the bubble to expand. When the bubble expansion is enough, the surface tension can not hold the bubble together and it pops. For longer lasting bubbles, work in a cool, shady area and keep all surfaces that the bubbles may touch wet with bubble solution.


World records with soap bubbles
Longest Soap Bubble
A 35 m (105 ft) long bubble was created by Alan McKay (New Zealand) on August 9th 1996.
Largest Free-Floating Soap Bubble
13.68 cubic meters 483 cubic feet Jarom Watts (USA) on 21 February 2009,
Longest Lasting Soap Bubble
The physicist Sir James Dewar (UK) kept a bubble of 32 cm diameter for 108 days.
Most Soap Bubbles Inside One Another ("Bubble Dome")
12 Fan Yang (Canada) 20 October 2001
Largest Object Inside a Soap Bubble
Matěj Kodeš (Czech Republic) made a soap bubble around a truck (length: 6 m, width: 2.8 m, height: 3.5 m) on 9 December 2010 in Prague, Czech Republic.

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